What a Crazy Day For History!

1202 Despite letters from Pope Innocent III forbidding it and threatening excommunication, Catholic crusaders begin a siege of the Catholic city of Zara (now Zadar, Croatia).

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1293 Raden Wijaya is crowned as the first monarch of Majapahit kingdom of Java, taking throne name Kertarajasa Jayawardhana.

1444 The crusading forces of King Vladislaus III of Varna (aka Ulaszlo I of Hungary and Wladyslaw III of Poland) are crushed by the Turks under Sultan Murad II and Vladislaus is killed.

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1520 Danish King Christian II executes dozens of people in the Stockholm Bloodbath after a successful invasion of Sweden.

1580 After a three-day siege, the English Army beheads over 600 Papal soldiers and civilians at Dún an Óir, Ireland.

1619 René Descartes has the dreams that inspire his Meditations on First Philosophy.

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1659 Chattrapati Shivaji Maharaj, Maratha King kills Afzal Khan, Adilshahi in the battle popularly known as Battle of Pratapgarh. This is also recognised as the first defence of Swarajya

1674 As provided in the Treaty of Westminster, Netherlands cedes New Netherland to England.

1702 English colonists under the command of James Moore besiege Spanish St. Augustine during Queen Anne’s War.

1766 The last colonial governor of New Jersey, William Franklin, signs the charter of Queen’s College (later renamed Rutgers University).

1775 The United States Marine Corps is founded at Tun Tavern in Philadelphia by Samuel Nicholas.

1793 A Goddess of Reason is proclaimed by the French Convention at the suggestion of Pierre Gaspard Chaumette.

1821 Cry of Independence by Rufina Alfaro at La Villa de Los Santos, Panama setting into motion a revolt which lead to Panama’s independence from Spain and to it immediately becoming part of Colombia

1847 The passenger ship Stephen Whitney is wrecked in thick fog off the southern coast of Ireland, killing 92 of the 110 on board. The disaster results in the construction of the Fastnet Rock lighthouse.

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1865 Major Henry Wirz, the superintendent of a prison camp in Andersonville, Georgia, is hanged, becoming one of only three American Civil War soldier executed for war crimes.

1871 Henry Morton Stanley locates missing explorer and missionary, Dr. David Livingstone in Ujiji, near Lake Tanganyika, famously greeting him with the words, “Dr. Livingstone, I presume?”.

1898 Beginning of the Wilmington Insurrection of 1898, the only instance of a municipal government being overthrown in US history.

1910 The date of Thomas A. Davis’ opening of the San Diego Army and Navy Academy, though the official founding date is November 23, 1910.

1918 The Western Union Cable Office in North Sydney, Nova Scotia, receives a top-secret coded message from Europe (that would be sent to Ottawa and Washington, D.C.) that said on November 11, 1918, all fighting would cease on land, sea and in the air.

1919 The first national convention of the American Legion is held in Minneapolis, ending on November 12.

1940 The 1940 Vrancea earthquake strikes Romania killing an estimated 1,000 and injuring approximately 4,000 more.

1942 Germany invades Vichy France following French Admiral François Darlan’s agreement to an armistice with the Allies in North Africa.

1944 The ammunition ship USS Mount Hood explodes at Seeadler Harbour, Manus, Admiralty Islands, killing at least 432 and wounding 371.

1945 Heavy fighting in Surabaya between Indonesian nationalists and returning colonialists after World War II, today celebrated as Heroes’ Day (Hari Pahlawan).

1951 With the roll out of the North American Numbering Plan, direct-dial coast-to-coast telephone service begins in the United States.

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1954 U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower dedicates the USMC War Memorial (Iwo Jima memorial) in Arlington National Cemetery.

1958 The Hope Diamond is donated to the Smithsonian Institution by New York diamond merchant Harry Winston.

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Tick Tock…Tick Tock. Time marches on of memories of today

What happened on November 7th in history?

335 Athanasius is banished to Trier, on charge that he prevented a grain fleet from sailing to Constantinople.

680 The Sixth Ecumenical Council commences in Constantinople.

1426 Lam Sơn rebels emerge victorious against the Ming army in the Battle of Tốt Động Chúc Động taking place in Đông Quan, in now Hanoi.

1492 The Ensisheim meteorite, the oldest meteorite with a known date of impact, strikes the earth around noon in a wheat field outside the village of Ensisheim, Alsace, France.

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1619 Elizabeth Stuart is crowned Queen of Bohemia.

1665 The London Gazette, the oldest surviving journal, is first published.

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1775 John Murray, the Royal Governor of the Colony of Virginia, starts the first mass emancipation of slaves in North America by issuing Lord Dunmore’s Offer of Emancipation, which offers freedom to slaves who abandoned their colonial masters in order to fight with Murray and the British.

1786 The oldest musical organization in the United States is founded as the Stoughton Musical Society.

1811 The Battle of Tippecanoe is fought near present-day Battle Ground, Indiana, United States.

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1837 In Alton, Illinois, abolitionist printer Elijah P. Lovejoy is shot dead by a mob while attempting to protect his printing shop from being destroyed a third time.

1861 American Civil War: Battle of Belmont: In Belmont, Missouri, Union forces led by General Ulysses S. Grant overrun a Confederate camp but are forced to retreat when Confederate reinforcements arrive.

1874 A cartoon by Thomas Nast in Harper’s Weekly, is considered the first important use of an elephant as a symbol for the United States Republican Party.

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1885 The completion of Canada’s first transcontinental railway is symbolized by the Last Spike ceremony at Craigellachie, British Columbia.

1893 Women’s Suffrage: Women in the U.S. state of Colorado are granted the right to vote, the second state to do so.

1900 Battle of Leliefontein, a battle during which the Royal Canadian Dragoons win three Victoria Crosses.

1907 Jesús García saves the entire town of Nacozari de Garcia, Sonora by driving a burning train full of dynamite six kilometers (3.7 miles) away before it can explode.

1908 Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid are reportedly killed in San Vicente, Bolivia.

1910 The first air freight shipment (from Dayton, Ohio, to Columbus, Ohio) is undertaken by the Wright Brothers and department store owner Max Moorehouse.

1912 The Deutsche Opernhaus (now Deutsche Oper Berlin) opens in the Berlin neighborhood of Charlottenburg, with a production of Beethoven’s Fidelio.

1913 The first day of the Great Lakes Storm of 1913, a massive blizzard that ultimately killed 250 and caused over $5 million (about $118,098,000 in 2013 dollars) damage. Winds reach hurricane force on this date.

1914 The first issue of The New Republic magazine is published.

1914 The German colony of Kiaochow Bay and its centre at Tsingtao are captured by Japanese forces.

1916 Jeannette Rankin is the first woman elected to the United States Congress.

1917 The Gregorian calendar date of the October Revolution, which gets its name from the Julian calendar date of 25 October. On this date in 1917, the Bolsheviks storm the Winter Palace.

1917 Third Battle of Gaza ends: British forces capture Gaza from the Ottoman Empire.

1918 The 1918 influenza epidemic spreads to Western Samoa, killing 7,542 (about 20% of the population) by the end of the year.

1918 Kurt Eisner overthrows the Wittelsbach dynasty in the Kingdom of Bavaria.

1919 The first Palmer Raid is conducted on the second anniversary of the Russian Revolution. Over 10,000 suspected communists and anarchists are arrested in twenty-three different U.S. cities.

1920 Patriarch Tikhon issues a decree that leads to the formation of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia.

1929 In New York City, the Museum of Modern Art opens to the public.

1931 The Chinese Soviet Republic is proclaimed on the anniversary of the October Revolution.

1933 Fiorello H. La Guardia is elected the 99th mayor of New York City.

1940 In Tacoma, Washington, the original Tacoma Narrows Bridge collapses in a windstorm, a mere four months after the bridge’s completion.

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1941 Soviet hospital ship Armenia is sunk by German planes while evacuating refugees and wounded military and staff of several Crimean hospitals. It is estimated that over 5,000 people died in the sinking.

1944 A passenger train derails in Aguadilla, Puerto Rico from excessive speed when descending a hill. Sixteen people are killed and 50 are injured.

1944 Soviet spy Richard Sorge, a half-Russian, half-German World War I veteran, is hanged by his Japanese captors along with 34 of his ring.

1944 elected for a record fourth term as President of the United States of America.

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1949 The first oil was taken in Oil Rocks (Neft Daşları), oldest offshore oil platform.

1956 The United Nations General Assembly adopts a resolution calling for the United Kingdom, France and Israel to immediately withdraw their troops from Egypt.

1957 The Gaither Report calls for more American missiles and fallout shelters.

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Oh My! This is what happened today throughout history

November 4th !!

1429 Armagnac–Burgundian Civil War: Joan of Arc liberates Saint-Pierre-le-Moûtier.

1501 Catherine of Aragon (later Henry VIII’s first wife) meets Arthur Tudor, Henry VIII’s older brother they would later marry.

1576 In Flanders, Spain captures Antwerp (after three days the city is nearly destroyed).

1677 The future Mary II of England marries William, Prince of Orange. They would later jointly reign as William and Mary.

1780 Jose Gabriel Condorcanqui aka Tupac Amaru starts his Rebellion on Peru against Spain-

1783 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s Symphony No. 36 is performed for the first time in Linz, Austria.

1791 The Western Confederacy of American Indians wins a major victory over the United States in the Battle of the Wabash.

1798 Beginning of the Russo-Ottoman siege of Corfu.

1839 Newport Rising: the last large-scale armed rebellion against authority in mainland Britain.

1847 Sir James Young Simpson, a British physician, discovers the anaesthetic properties of chloroform.

1852 Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour becomes the prime minister of Piedmont-Sardinia, which soon expands to become Italy.

1861 The University of Washington opens in Seattle as the Territorial University.

1864 American Civil War: Battle of Johnsonville Confederate troops bombard a Union supply base and destroy millions of dollars in material.

1868 Camagüey, Cuba revolts against Spain during the Ten Years’ War.
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1890 London’s first deep-level tube railway opens between King William Street and Stockwell.

1918 Austria-Hungary surrenders to Italy.

1921 The Sturmabteilung or SA, whose members were known as “brownshirts”, physically assault Adolf Hitler’s opposition after his speech in Munich.

1921 Japanese Prime Minister Hara Takashi is assassinated in Tokyo.

1921 The Italian unknown soldier is buried in the Altare della Patria (Fatherland Altar) in Rome.

1922 In Egypt, British archaeologist Howard Carter and his men find the entrance to Pharaoh Tutankhamun’s tomb in the Valley of the Kings.

1924 Nellie Tayloe Ross of Wyoming is elected the first female governor in the United States.

1939 World War II: U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt orders the United States Customs Service to implement the Neutrality Act of 1939, allowing cash-and-carry purchases of weapons by belligerents.
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1942 Second Battle of El Alamein Disobeying a direct order by Adolf Hitler, General Field Marshal Erwin Rommel leads his forces on a five-month retreat.

1944 World War II: Bitola Liberation Day

1952 The United States government establishes the National Security Agency, or NSA.

1956 Soviet troops enter Hungary to end the Hungarian revolution against the Soviet Union, that started on October 23. Thousands are killed, more are wounded, and nearly a quarter million leave the country.

1960 At the Kasakela Chimpanzee Community in Tanzania, Dr. Jane Goodall observes chimpanzees creating tools, the first-ever observation in non-human animals.

1962 In a test of the Nike Hercules air defense missile, Shot Dominic-Tightrope is successfully detonated 69,000 feet above Johnston Atoll. It would also be the last atmospheric nuclear test conducted by the United States.

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Okay…Okay….What happened today in History?

As you may have noticed, I never detail anything after 1964 because that to me is not history being born in that year.  To me that is just the era I live in:

637 Antioch surrenders to the Muslim forces under Rashidun Caliphate after the Battle of the Iron Bridge.

758 Guangzhou is sacked by Arab and Persian pirates.

1137 Battle of Rignano between Ranulf of Apulia and Roger II of Sicily.

1270 The Eighth Crusade and siege of Tunis end by an agreement between Charles I of Sicily (brother to King Louis IX of France, who had died months earlier) and the sultan of Tunis.

1340 Portuguese and Castilian forces halt a Marinid invasion at the Battle of Río Salado.

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1485 King Henry VII of England is crowned.

1501 Ballet of Chestnuts: A banquet held by Cesare Borgia in the Papal Palace where fifty prostitutes or courtesans are in attendance for the entertainment of the guests.

1534 English Parliament passes Act of Supremacy, making King Henry VIII head of the English church – a role formerly held by the Pope.

1657 Spanish forces fail to retake Jamaica at the Battle of Ocho Rios during the Anglo-Spanish War.

1757 Mustafa III became Ottoman Sultan.

1806 Believing he is facing a much larger force, Prussian Lieutenant General Friedrich von Romberg, commanding 5,300 men, surrendered the city of Stettin to 800 French soldiers commanded by General Lassalle.

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1817 The independent government of Venezuela is established by Simón Bolívar.

1831 In Southampton County, Virginia, escaped slave Nat Turner is captured and arrested for leading the bloodiest slave rebellion in United States history.

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1863 Danish Prince Wilhelm arrives in Athens to assume his throne as George I, King of the Hellenes.

1864 Second Schleswig War ends. Denmark renounces all claim to Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg, which come under Prussian and Austrian administration.

1864 Helena, Montana is founded after four prospectors discover gold at “Last Chance Gulch”.

1888 Rudd Concession granted by King Lobengula of Matabeleland to agents of Cecil Rhodes led by Charles Rudd.

1894 Domenico Melegatti obtains a patent for a procedure to be applied in producing pandoro industrially.

1905 Czar Nicholas II of Russia grants Russia’s first constitution, creating a legislative assembly.

1918 The Ottoman Empire signs an armistice with the Allies, ending the First World War in the Middle East.

1920 The Communist Party of Australia is founded in Sydney.

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1922 Benito Mussolini is made Prime Minister of Italy.

1925 John Logie Baird creates Britain’s first television transmitter.

1929 The Stuttgart Cable Car is constructed in Stuttgart, Germany.
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1938 Orson Welles broadcasts his radio play of H. G. Wells’s The War of the Worlds, causing anxiety in some of the audience in the United States.

1941 Franklin Delano Roosevelt approves U.S. $1 billion in Lend-Lease aid to the Allied nations.

1941 One thousand five hundred Jews from Pidhaytsi (in western Ukraine) are sent by Nazis to Bełżec extermination camp.

1942 Lt. Tony Fasson, Able Seaman Colin Grazier and canteen assistant Tommy Brown from HMS Petard board U-559, retrieving material which would lead to the decryption of the German Enigma code.

1944 Anne Frank and sister Margot Frank are deported from Auschwitz to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp.

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1945 Jackie Robinson of the Kansas City Monarchs signs a contract for the Brooklyn Dodgers to break the baseball color barrier.

1947 The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which is the foundation of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), is founded.

1950 Pope Pius XII witnesses the “Miracle of the Sun” while at the Vatican.

1953 Cold War: U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower formally approves the top secret document National Security Council Paper No. 162/2, which states that the United States’ arsenal of nuclear weapons must be maintained and expanded to counter the communist threat.

1960 Michael Woodruff performs the first successful kidney transplant in the United Kingdom at the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary.

1961 Nuclear testing: The Soviet Union detonates the hydrogen bomb Tsar Bomba over Novaya Zemlya; at 50 megatons of yield, it is still the largest explosive device ever detonated, nuclear or otherwise.

1961 Because of “violations of Lenin’s precepts”, it is decreed that Joseph Stalin’s body be removed from its place of honour inside Lenin’s tomb and buried near the Kremlin Wall with a plain granite marker instead.

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What the heck? This is what happened on October 29th

Today in History….

539 BC Cyrus the Great (founder of Persian Empire) entered capital of Babylon and allowed the Jews to return to their land.

312 Constantine the Great enters Rome after his victory at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, stages a grand adventus in the city, and is met with popular jubilation. Maxentius’ body is fished out of the Tiber and beheaded.

437 Valentinian III, Western Roman Emperor, marries Licinia Eudoxia, daughter of his cousin Theodosius II, Eastern Roman Emperor in Constantinople unifying the two branches of the House of Theodosius.

969 Byzantine troops occupy Antioch Syria.

1268 Conradin, the last legitimate male heir of the Hohenstaufen dynasty of Kings of Germany and Holy Roman Emperors, is executed along with his companion Frederick I, Margrave of Baden by Charles I of Sicily, a political rival and ally to the hostile Roman Catholic Church.

1390 First trial for witchcraft in Paris leading to the death of three people.

1422 Charles VII of France becomes king in succession to his father Charles VI of France though he isn’t officially crowned king until 1429.

1467 Battle of Brustem: Charles the Bold defeats Liège.

1611 Russian homage to the King of Poland, Sigismund III Vasa.

1618 English adventurer, writer, and courtier Sir Walter Raleigh is beheaded for allegedly conspiring against James I of England.

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1658 Naval forces of the Dutch Republic defeat the Swedes in the Battle of the Sound.

1665 Battle of Ambuila, in which Portuguese forces defeat the forces of the Kingdom of Kongo and decapitated king António I of Kongo, also called Nvita a Nkanga.

1675 Leibniz makes the first use of the long s (∫) as a symbol of the integral in calculus.

1787 Mozart’s opera Don Giovanni receives its first performance in Prague.

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1792 Mount Hood (Oregon) is named after the British naval officer Alexander Arthur Hood by Lt. William E. Broughton who spotted the mountain near the mouth of the Willamette River.

1863 Eighteen countries meet in Geneva and agree to form the International Red Cross.

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1863 Battle of Wauhatchie Forces under Union General Ulysses S. Grant repel a Confederate attack led by General James Longstreet. Union forces thus open a supply line into Chattanooga, Tennessee.

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1886 The first ticker tape parade takes place in New York City when office workers spontaneously throw ticker tape into the streets as the Statue of Liberty is dedicated.

1888 The Convention of Constantinople is signed, guaranteeing free maritime passage through the Suez Canal during war and peace.

1901 In Amherst, Massachusetts nurse Jane Toppan is arrested for murdering the Davis family of Boston with an overdose of morphine.

1901 Capital punishment: Leon Czolgosz, the assassin of U.S. President William McKinley, is executed by electrocution.

1918 The German High Seas Fleet is incapacitated when sailors mutiny on the night of the 29th-30th, an action which would trigger the German Revolution of 1918–19.

1921 The Link River Dam, a part of the Klamath Reclamation Project, is completed.

1921 Second trial of Sacco and Vanzetti in the United States of America.

1921 The Harvard University football team loses to Centre College, ending a 25 game winning streak. This is considered one of the biggest upsets in college football.

1922 King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, appoints Benito Mussolini as Prime Minister.

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1923 Turkey becomes a republic following the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire.

1929 The New York Stock Exchange crashes in what will be called the Crash of ’29 or “Black Tuesday”, ending the Great Bull Market of the 1920s and beginning the Great Depression.

1941 In the Kaunas Ghetto over 10,000 Jews are shot by German occupiers at the Ninth Fort, a massacre known as the “Great Action”.

1942 In the United Kingdom, leading clergymen and political figures hold a public meeting to register outrage over Nazi Germany’s persecution of Jews.

1944 The city of Breda in the Netherlands is liberated by 1st Polish Armoured Division.

1944 World War II: The Soviet Red Army enters Hungary.

1945 Getúlio Vargas, president of Brazil, resigns.

1948 Safsaf massacre.

1953 BCPA Flight 304 DC-6 crashes near San Francisco. Pianist William Kapell is among the 19 killed.

1955 The Soviet battleship Novorossiysk strikes a World War II mine in the harbor at Sevastopol.

1956 Suez Crisis begins: Israeli forces invade the Sinai Peninsula and push Egyptian forces back toward the Suez Canal.

1956 The Tangier Protocol is signed: The international city Tangier is reintegrated into Morocco.

1957 Israel’s prime minister David Ben-Gurion and five of his ministers are injured when a hand grenade is tossed into Israel’s parliament, the Knesset.

1960 In Louisville, Kentucky, Cassius Clay (who later takes the name Muhammad Ali) wins his first professional fight.

1960 An airplane carrying the Cal Poly football team crashes on takeoff in Toledo, Ohio.
1961 Syria exits from the United Arab Republic.

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Hear Ye! Hear Ye! On this day, these events occured

October 23rd . . .

42 BC At the Second Battle of Philippi Mark Antony and Octavian decisively defeat Brutus’s army. Brutus commits suicide.

425 Valentinian III is elevated as Roman emperor at the age of 6.

501 The Synodus Palmaris, called by Gothic king Theoderic the Great, discharges Pope Symmachus of all charges, thus ending the schism of Antipope Laurentius.

1086 At the Battle of az-Zallaqah, the army of Yusuf ibn Tashfin defeats the forces of Castilian King Alfonso VI.

1157 The Battle of Grathe Heath ends the civil war in Denmark. King Sweyn III is killed and Valdemar I restores the country.

1295 The first treaty forming the Auld Alliance between Scotland and France against England is signed in Paris.

1641 Outbreak of the Irish Rebellion of 1641.

1642 First major battle of the First English Civil War.

1694 British/American colonial forces, led by Sir William Phips, fail to seize Quebec from the French.

1707 The first Parliament of Great Britain meets.

1739 British Prime Minister Robert Walpole, reluctantly declares war on Spain.

1812 Claude François de Malet, a French general, begins a conspiracy to overthrow Napoleon Bonaparte, claiming that the Emperor died in Russia and that he is now the commandant of Paris.

1850 The first National Women’s Rights Convention begins in Worcester, Massachusetts, United States.

1861 U.S. President Abraham Lincoln suspends the writ of habeas corpus in Washington, D.C., for all military-related cases.

1864 American Civil War: Battle of Westport Union forces under General Samuel R. Curtis defeat Confederate troops led by General Sterling Price at Westport, near Kansas City.

1867 72 Senators are summoned by Royal Proclamation to serve as the first members of the Canadian Senate.

1870 Franco-Prussian War: the Siege of Metz concludes with a decisive Prussian victory.

1906 Alberto Santos-Dumont flies an airplane in the first heavier-than-air flight in Europe at Champs de Bagatelle, Paris, France.

1911 First use of aircraft in war: An Italian pilot takes off from Libya to observe Turkish army lines during the Italo-Turkish War.

1912 The Battle of Kumanovo between the Serbian and Ottoman armies begins.

1915 In New York City, 25,000-33,000 women march on Fifth Avenue to advocate their right to vote.

1917 Lenin calls for the October Revolution.

1929 Great Depression: After a steady decline in stock market prices since a peak in September, the New York Stock Exchange begins to show signs of panic.

1935 Dutch Schultz, Abe Landau, Otto Berman, and Bernard “Lulu” Rosencrantz are fatally shot at a saloon in Newark, New Jersey in what will become known as The Chophouse Massacre.

1939 The Japanese Mitsubishi G4M twin-engine “Betty” Bomber makes its maiden flight.

1941 Field Marshal Georgy Zhukov takes command of Red Army operations to prevent the further advance into Russia of German forces and to prevent the Wehrmacht from capturing Moscow.

1942 Second Battle of El Alamein: At El Alamein in northern Egypt, the British Eighth Army under Field Marshal Montgomery begins a critical offensive to expel the Axis armies from Egypt.

1942 The Battle for Henderson Field begins during the Guadalcanal Campaign and ends on October 26.

1944 World War II: Battle of Leyte Gulf The largest naval battle in history begins in the Philippines.

1946 The United Nations General Assembly convenes for the first time, at an auditorium in Flushing, Queens, New York City.

1955 Prime Minister Ngô Đình Diệm defeats former emperor Bảo Đại in a referendum and founds the Republic of Vietnam.

1956 Thousands of Hungarians protest against the government and Soviet occupation. (The Hungarian Revolution is crushed on November 4).

1958 The Springhill Mine bump An underground earthquake traps 174 miners in the No. 2 colliery at Springhill, Nova Scotia, the deepest coal mine in North America at the time. By November 1, rescuers from around the world had dug out 100 of the victims, marking the death toll at 74.

1958 The Smurfs, a fictional race of blue dwarves, later popularized in a Hanna-Barbera animated cartoon series, appear for the first time in the story La flute à six schtroumpfs, a Johan and Peewit adventure by Peyo, which is serialized in the weekly Spirou magazine.

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A Light Historical Day

Oh October 20th you seem a bit dull compared to other days!

1548 The city of Nuestra Señora de La Paz (Our Lady of Peace) is founded by Alonso de Mendoza by appointment of the king of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V.

1572 Relief of Goes, Cristóbal de Mondragón with 3000 soldiers of the Spanish Tercios, release the siege of the city.

1720 Caribbean pirate Calico Jack is captured by the Royal Navy.

1740 Maria Theresa takes the throne of Austria. France, Prussia, Bavaria and Saxony refuse to honour the Pragmatic Sanction and the War of the Austrian Succession begins.

1781 Patent of Toleration, providing limited freedom of worship, is approved in Habsburg Monarchy.

1803 The United States Senate ratifies the Louisiana Purchase.

1818 The Convention of 1818 signed between the United States and the United Kingdom which, among other things, settles the Canada–United States border on the 49th parallel for most of its length.

1827 A combined Turkish and Egyptian armada is defeated by British, French, and Russian naval force in the port of Navarino in Pylos, Greece.

1873 Yale, Princeton, Columbia, and Rutgers universities draft the first code of American football rules.

1883 Peru and Chile sign the Treaty of Ancón, by which the Tarapacá province is ceded to the latter, bringing an end to Peru’s involvement in the War of the Pacific.

1904 Chile and Bolivia sign the Treaty of Peace and Friendship, delimiting the border between the two countries.

1910 The hull of the RMS Olympic, sister-ship to the ill-fated RMS Titanic, is launched from the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast, Northern Ireland.

1935 The Long March, a mammoth retreat undertaken by the armed forces of the Chinese Communist Party a year prior, ends.

1939 Pope Pius XII publishes his first major encyclical entitled Summi Pontificatus.

1941  Thousands of civilians in Kragujevac in German-occupied Serbia are murdered in the Kragujevac massacre.

1943 The cargo vessel Sinfra is attacked by Allied aircraft at Souda Bay, Crete, and sunk. 2,098 Italian prisoners of war drown with it.

1944 The Soviet Army and Yugoslav Partisans liberate Belgrade, the capital of Yugoslavia

1944 Liquid natural gas leaks from storage tanks in Cleveland, then explodes; the explosion and resulting fire level 30 blocks and kill 130.

1944 American general Douglas MacArthur fulfills his promise to return to the Philippines when he commands an Allied assault on the islands, reclaiming them from the Japanese during the Second World War.

1946 Government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam decides that October 20 is Vietnam Women’s Day.

1947 The House Un-American Activities Committee begins its investigation into Communist infiltration of Hollywood, resulting in a blacklist that prevents some from working in the industry for years.

1947 United States of America and Islamic Republic of Pakistan establish diplomatic relations for the first time.

1951 The “Johnny Bright incident” occurs in Stillwater, Oklahoma

1952 Governor Evelyn Baring declares a state of emergency in Kenya and begins arresting hundreds of suspected leaders of the Mau Mau Uprising, including Jomo Kenyatta, the future first President of Kenya.

1961 The Soviet Union performs the first armed test of a submarine-launched ballistic missile, launching an R-13 from a Golf-class submarine.

1962 People’s Republic of China launches simultaneous offensives in Ladakh and across the McMahon Line, igniting the Sino-Indian War.

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What’s up with October 17th?

539 BC Cyrus the Great marches into the city of Babylon, releasing the Jews from almost 70 years of exile. Cyrus allows the Jews to return to Yehud Medinata and rebuild the Temple in Jerusalem.

456 Battle of Placentia: Ricimer, supported by Majorian (comes domesticorum), defeats the Roman usurper Avitus near Piacenza (Northern Italy) .

1091 London tornado of 1091: A tornado thought to be of strength T8/F4 strikes the heart of London.

1346 Battle of Neville’s Cross: King David II of Scotland is captured by the English near Durham, and imprisoned in the Tower of London for eleven years.

1448 Second Battle of Kosovo, where the mainly Hungarian army led by John Hunyadi is defeated by an Ottoman army led by Sultan Murad II.

1456 The University of Greifswald is established, making it the second oldest university in northern Europe (also for a period the oldest in Sweden, and Prussia).

1558 Poczta Polska, the Polish postal service, is founded.

1604 Kepler’s Supernova: German astronomer Johannes Kepler observes a supernova in the constellation Ophiuchus.

1610 French king Louis XIII is crowned in Reims Cathedral.

1660 Nine regicides, the men who signed the death warrant of Charles I, are hanged, drawn and quartered.

1662 Charles II of England sells Dunkirk to France for 40,000 pounds.

1771 Premiere in Milan of the opera Ascanio in Alba, composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, age 15.

1777 American Revolutionary War: British General John Burgoyne surrenders his army at Saratoga, New York.

1781 American Revolutionary War: British General Lord Charles Cornwallis surrenders at the Siege of Yorktown.

1800 Britain takes control of the Dutch colony of Curaçao.

1806 Former leader of the Haitian Revolution, Emperor Jacques I of Haiti is assassinated after an oppressive rule.

1814 London Beer Flood occurs in London, killing eight.

1860 First The Open Championship (referred to in North America as the British Open).

1861 Nineteen people are killed in the Cullin-La-Ringo massacre, the deadliest massacre of Europeans by aborigines in Australian history.

1888 Thomas Edison files a patent for the Optical Phonograph (the first movie).
1905 The October Manifesto issued by Tsar Nicholas II of Russia

1907 Guglielmo Marconi’s company begins the first commercial transatlantic wireless service between Glace Bay, Nova Scotia, Canada and Clifden, Ireland.

1912 Bulgaria, Greece and Serbia declare war on the Ottoman Empire, joining Montenegro in the First Balkan War.

1917 First British bombing of Germany in World War I.

1919 RCA is incorporated as the Radio Corporation of America.

1931 Al Capone convicted of income tax evasion.

1933 Albert Einstein flees Nazi Germany and moves to the United States.

1941 For the first time in World War II, a German submarine attacks an American ship.

1941 German troops execute the male population of the villages Kerdyllia in Serres, Greece.

1943 Burma Railway (Burma–Thailand Railway) is completed.

1943 The Holocaust: Sobibór extermination camp is closed.

1945 A massive number of people, headed by CGT, gather in the Plaza de Mayo in Argentina to demand Juan Perón’s release. It calls “el día de la lealtad peronista” (peronista loyalty day)

1945 Archbishop Damaskinos of Athens becomes Prime Minister of Greece between the pull-out of the German occupation force in 1944 and the return of King Georgios II to Greece.

1956 The first commercial nuclear power station is officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II in Sellafield,in Cumbria, England.

1956 Donald Byrne and Bobby Fischer play a famous chess game called The Game of the Century. Fischer beat Byrne and wins a Brilliancy prize.

1961 Scores of Algerian protesters (some claim up to 400) are massacred by the Paris police at the instigation of former Nazi collaborator Maurice Papon, then chief of the Prefecture of Police.

1964 Prime Minister of Australia Robert Menzies opens the artificial Lake Burley Griffin in the middle of the capital Canberra.

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Wild & Crazy Historical Anniversaries . . . .

For October 15th

1066 Edgar the Ætheling is proclaimed King of England, but is never crowned. Reigned until 10 December 1066.

1211 Battle of the Rhyndacus: The Latin emperor Henry of Flanders defeats the Nicaean emperor Theodore I Lascaris.

1529 The Siege of Vienna ends as the Austrians rout the invading Turks, turning the tide against almost a century of unchecked conquest throughout eastern and central Europe by the Ottoman Empire.

1582 Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian calendar. In Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain, October 4 of this year is followed directly by October 15.

1764 Edward Gibbon observes a group of friars singing in the ruined Temple of Jupiter in Rome, which inspires him to begin work on The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.

1783 The Montgolfier brothers’ hot air balloon (tethered) makes the first human ascent, piloted by Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier.

1793 Queen Marie-Antoinette of France is tried and convicted in a swift, pre-determined trial in the Palais de Justice, Paris, and condemned to death the following day.

1815 Napoleon I of France begins his exile on Saint Helena in the Atlantic Ocean.

1863 The H. L. Hunley, the first submarine to sink a ship, sinks during a test, killing its inventor, Horace L. Hunley.

1864 The Battle of Glasgow is fought, resulting in the surrender of Glasgow, Missouri and its Union garrison, to the Confederacy.

1878 The Edison Electric Light Company begins operation.

1880 Mexican soldiers kill Victorio, one of the greatest Apache military strategists.

1888 The “From Hell” letter sent by Jack the Ripper is received by investigators.

1894 The Dreyfus affair: Alfred Dreyfus is arrested for spying.

1904 The Russian Baltic Fleet leaves Reval, Estonia for Port Arthur during the Russo-Japanese War.

1910 Airship America is launched from New Jersey in the first attempt to cross the Atlantic by a powered aircraft.

1917 World War I: At Vincennes outside Paris, Dutch dancer Mata Hari is executed by firing squad for spying for the German Empire.

1928 The airship, Graf Zeppelin completes its first trans-Atlantic flight, landing at Lakehurst, New Jersey, United States.

1932 Tata Airlines (later to become Air India) makes its first flight.

1934 The Soviet Republic of China collapses when Chiang Kai-shek’s National Revolutionary Army successfully encircles Ruijin, forcing the fleeing Communists to begin the Long March.

1939 The New York Municipal Airport (later renamed LaGuardia Airport) is dedicated.

1940 The President of Catalonia, Lluís Companys, is executed by the Spanish dictatorship of Francisco Franco, making him the only European president to have been executed.

1944 The Arrow Cross Party (very similar to Hitler’s NSDAP (Nazi party)) takes power in Hungary.

1945 World War II: The former premier of Vichy France Pierre Laval is shot by a firing squad for treason.

1951 Mexican chemist Luis E. Miramontes conducts the very last step of the first synthesis of norethisterone, the progestin that would later be used in one of the first three oral contraceptives.

1951 The first episode of I Love Lucy, an American television sitcom starring Lucille Ball, Desi Arnaz, Vivian Vance, and William Frawley, airs on the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS).

1953 British nuclear test Totem 1 is detonated at Emu Field, South Australia.

1954 Hurricane Hazel devastates the eastern seaboard, killing 95 and causing massive floods as far north as Toronto. As a Category 4 upon landfall, it is the strongest storm on record to strike as far north as North Carolina.

1956 Fortran, the first modern computer language, is shared with the coding community for the first time.

1965 Vietnam War: The Catholic Worker Movement stages an anti-war rally in Manhattan including a public burning of a draft card; the first such act to result in arrest under a new amendment to the Selective Service Act.

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Did You Know That Today Is . . .

October 13 in History

54 Roman Emperor Claudius is poisoned to death under mysterious circumstances. His 17-year-old stepson Nero succeeds him to the Roman throne.

409 Vandals and Alans cross the Pyrenees and appear in Hispania.

1307 Hundreds of Knights Templar in France are simultaneously arrested by agents of Phillip the Fair, to be later tortured into a “confession” of heresy.

1332 Rinchinbal Khan, Emperor Ningzong of Yuan becomes the Khagan of the Mongols and Emperor of the Yuan Dynasty, reigning for only 53 days.

1582 Because of the implementation of the Gregorian calendar, this day does not exist in this year in Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain.

1644 A Swedish–Dutch fleet defeats the Danish fleet at Fehmarn and captures about 1,000 prisoners.

1710 Port Royal, the capital of French Acadia, falls in a siege by British forces.

1773 The Whirlpool Galaxy is discovered by Charles Messier.

1775 The United States Continental Congress orders the establishment of the Continental Navy (later renamed the United States Navy).

1792 In Washington, D.C., the cornerstone of the United States Executive Mansion (known as the White House since 1818) is laid.

1812 War of 1812: Battle of Queenston Heights As part of the Niagara campaign in Ontario, Canada, United States forces under General Stephen Van Rensselaer are repulsed from invading Canada by British and native troops led by Sir Isaac Brock.

1843 In New York City, Henry Jones and 11 others found B’nai B’rith (the oldest Jewish service organization in the world).

1845 A majority of voters in the Republic of Texas approve a proposed constitution that, if accepted by the U.S. Congress, will make Texas a U.S. state.

1881 First known conversation in modern Hebrew by Eliezer Ben-Yehuda and friends.

1884 Greenwich, in London, England, is established as Universal Time meridian of longitude.

1885 The Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) is founded in Atlanta, United States.

1892 Edward Emerson Barnard discovers D/1892 T1, the first comet discovered by photographic means, on the night of October 13–14.

1911 Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, becomes the first Governor-General of Canada of royal descent.

1914 In Major League Baseball’s World Series, the Boston Braves defeat the Philadelphia Athletics, 4 games to 0, at Fenway Park in Boston, completing the first World Series sweep in history.

1915 The Battle of the Hohenzollern Redoubt marks the end of the Battle of Loos in northern France, World War I.

1917 The “Miracle of the Sun” is witnessed by an estimated 70,000 people in the Cova da Iria in Fátima, Portugal.

1918 Mehmed Talat Pasha and the Young Turk (C.U.P.) ministry resign and sign an armistice, ending Ottoman participation in World War I.

1921 The Soviet republics of Russia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia sign the Treaty of Kars with the Grand National Assembly of Turkey to establish the contemporary borders between Turkey and the South Caucasus states.

1923 Ankara replaces Istanbul as the capital of Turkey.

1943 The new government of Italy sides with the Allies and declares war on Germany.

1944 Riga, the capital of Latvia is occupied by the Red Army.

1946 France adopts the constitution of the Fourth Republic.

1958 Paddington Bear, a classic character from English children’s literature, makes his debut.

1962 The Pacific Northwest experiences a cyclone the equal of a Cat 3 hurricane. Winds measured above 150 mph at several locations; 46 people died.

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