A Light Historical Day

Oh October 20th you seem a bit dull compared to other days!

1548 The city of Nuestra Señora de La Paz (Our Lady of Peace) is founded by Alonso de Mendoza by appointment of the king of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V.

1572 Relief of Goes, Cristóbal de Mondragón with 3000 soldiers of the Spanish Tercios, release the siege of the city.

1720 Caribbean pirate Calico Jack is captured by the Royal Navy.

1740 Maria Theresa takes the throne of Austria. France, Prussia, Bavaria and Saxony refuse to honour the Pragmatic Sanction and the War of the Austrian Succession begins.

1781 Patent of Toleration, providing limited freedom of worship, is approved in Habsburg Monarchy.

1803 The United States Senate ratifies the Louisiana Purchase.

1818 The Convention of 1818 signed between the United States and the United Kingdom which, among other things, settles the Canada–United States border on the 49th parallel for most of its length.

1827 A combined Turkish and Egyptian armada is defeated by British, French, and Russian naval force in the port of Navarino in Pylos, Greece.

1873 Yale, Princeton, Columbia, and Rutgers universities draft the first code of American football rules.

1883 Peru and Chile sign the Treaty of Ancón, by which the Tarapacá province is ceded to the latter, bringing an end to Peru’s involvement in the War of the Pacific.

1904 Chile and Bolivia sign the Treaty of Peace and Friendship, delimiting the border between the two countries.

1910 The hull of the RMS Olympic, sister-ship to the ill-fated RMS Titanic, is launched from the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast, Northern Ireland.

1935 The Long March, a mammoth retreat undertaken by the armed forces of the Chinese Communist Party a year prior, ends.

1939 Pope Pius XII publishes his first major encyclical entitled Summi Pontificatus.

1941  Thousands of civilians in Kragujevac in German-occupied Serbia are murdered in the Kragujevac massacre.

1943 The cargo vessel Sinfra is attacked by Allied aircraft at Souda Bay, Crete, and sunk. 2,098 Italian prisoners of war drown with it.

1944 The Soviet Army and Yugoslav Partisans liberate Belgrade, the capital of Yugoslavia

1944 Liquid natural gas leaks from storage tanks in Cleveland, then explodes; the explosion and resulting fire level 30 blocks and kill 130.

1944 American general Douglas MacArthur fulfills his promise to return to the Philippines when he commands an Allied assault on the islands, reclaiming them from the Japanese during the Second World War.

1946 Government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam decides that October 20 is Vietnam Women’s Day.

1947 The House Un-American Activities Committee begins its investigation into Communist infiltration of Hollywood, resulting in a blacklist that prevents some from working in the industry for years.

1947 United States of America and Islamic Republic of Pakistan establish diplomatic relations for the first time.

1951 The “Johnny Bright incident” occurs in Stillwater, Oklahoma

1952 Governor Evelyn Baring declares a state of emergency in Kenya and begins arresting hundreds of suspected leaders of the Mau Mau Uprising, including Jomo Kenyatta, the future first President of Kenya.

1961 The Soviet Union performs the first armed test of a submarine-launched ballistic missile, launching an R-13 from a Golf-class submarine.

1962 People’s Republic of China launches simultaneous offensives in Ladakh and across the McMahon Line, igniting the Sino-Indian War.

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What’s up with October 17th?

539 BC Cyrus the Great marches into the city of Babylon, releasing the Jews from almost 70 years of exile. Cyrus allows the Jews to return to Yehud Medinata and rebuild the Temple in Jerusalem.

456 Battle of Placentia: Ricimer, supported by Majorian (comes domesticorum), defeats the Roman usurper Avitus near Piacenza (Northern Italy) .

1091 London tornado of 1091: A tornado thought to be of strength T8/F4 strikes the heart of London.

1346 Battle of Neville’s Cross: King David II of Scotland is captured by the English near Durham, and imprisoned in the Tower of London for eleven years.

1448 Second Battle of Kosovo, where the mainly Hungarian army led by John Hunyadi is defeated by an Ottoman army led by Sultan Murad II.

1456 The University of Greifswald is established, making it the second oldest university in northern Europe (also for a period the oldest in Sweden, and Prussia).

1558 Poczta Polska, the Polish postal service, is founded.

1604 Kepler’s Supernova: German astronomer Johannes Kepler observes a supernova in the constellation Ophiuchus.

1610 French king Louis XIII is crowned in Reims Cathedral.

1660 Nine regicides, the men who signed the death warrant of Charles I, are hanged, drawn and quartered.

1662 Charles II of England sells Dunkirk to France for 40,000 pounds.

1771 Premiere in Milan of the opera Ascanio in Alba, composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, age 15.

1777 American Revolutionary War: British General John Burgoyne surrenders his army at Saratoga, New York.

1781 American Revolutionary War: British General Lord Charles Cornwallis surrenders at the Siege of Yorktown.

1800 Britain takes control of the Dutch colony of Curaçao.

1806 Former leader of the Haitian Revolution, Emperor Jacques I of Haiti is assassinated after an oppressive rule.

1814 London Beer Flood occurs in London, killing eight.

1860 First The Open Championship (referred to in North America as the British Open).

1861 Nineteen people are killed in the Cullin-La-Ringo massacre, the deadliest massacre of Europeans by aborigines in Australian history.

1888 Thomas Edison files a patent for the Optical Phonograph (the first movie).
1905 The October Manifesto issued by Tsar Nicholas II of Russia

1907 Guglielmo Marconi’s company begins the first commercial transatlantic wireless service between Glace Bay, Nova Scotia, Canada and Clifden, Ireland.

1912 Bulgaria, Greece and Serbia declare war on the Ottoman Empire, joining Montenegro in the First Balkan War.

1917 First British bombing of Germany in World War I.

1919 RCA is incorporated as the Radio Corporation of America.

1931 Al Capone convicted of income tax evasion.

1933 Albert Einstein flees Nazi Germany and moves to the United States.

1941 For the first time in World War II, a German submarine attacks an American ship.

1941 German troops execute the male population of the villages Kerdyllia in Serres, Greece.

1943 Burma Railway (Burma–Thailand Railway) is completed.

1943 The Holocaust: Sobibór extermination camp is closed.

1945 A massive number of people, headed by CGT, gather in the Plaza de Mayo in Argentina to demand Juan Perón’s release. It calls “el día de la lealtad peronista” (peronista loyalty day)

1945 Archbishop Damaskinos of Athens becomes Prime Minister of Greece between the pull-out of the German occupation force in 1944 and the return of King Georgios II to Greece.

1956 The first commercial nuclear power station is officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II in Sellafield,in Cumbria, England.

1956 Donald Byrne and Bobby Fischer play a famous chess game called The Game of the Century. Fischer beat Byrne and wins a Brilliancy prize.

1961 Scores of Algerian protesters (some claim up to 400) are massacred by the Paris police at the instigation of former Nazi collaborator Maurice Papon, then chief of the Prefecture of Police.

1964 Prime Minister of Australia Robert Menzies opens the artificial Lake Burley Griffin in the middle of the capital Canberra.

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Wild & Crazy Historical Anniversaries . . . .

For October 15th

1066 Edgar the Ætheling is proclaimed King of England, but is never crowned. Reigned until 10 December 1066.

1211 Battle of the Rhyndacus: The Latin emperor Henry of Flanders defeats the Nicaean emperor Theodore I Lascaris.

1529 The Siege of Vienna ends as the Austrians rout the invading Turks, turning the tide against almost a century of unchecked conquest throughout eastern and central Europe by the Ottoman Empire.

1582 Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian calendar. In Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain, October 4 of this year is followed directly by October 15.

1764 Edward Gibbon observes a group of friars singing in the ruined Temple of Jupiter in Rome, which inspires him to begin work on The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.

1783 The Montgolfier brothers’ hot air balloon (tethered) makes the first human ascent, piloted by Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier.

1793 Queen Marie-Antoinette of France is tried and convicted in a swift, pre-determined trial in the Palais de Justice, Paris, and condemned to death the following day.

1815 Napoleon I of France begins his exile on Saint Helena in the Atlantic Ocean.

1863 The H. L. Hunley, the first submarine to sink a ship, sinks during a test, killing its inventor, Horace L. Hunley.

1864 The Battle of Glasgow is fought, resulting in the surrender of Glasgow, Missouri and its Union garrison, to the Confederacy.

1878 The Edison Electric Light Company begins operation.

1880 Mexican soldiers kill Victorio, one of the greatest Apache military strategists.

1888 The “From Hell” letter sent by Jack the Ripper is received by investigators.

1894 The Dreyfus affair: Alfred Dreyfus is arrested for spying.

1904 The Russian Baltic Fleet leaves Reval, Estonia for Port Arthur during the Russo-Japanese War.

1910 Airship America is launched from New Jersey in the first attempt to cross the Atlantic by a powered aircraft.

1917 World War I: At Vincennes outside Paris, Dutch dancer Mata Hari is executed by firing squad for spying for the German Empire.

1928 The airship, Graf Zeppelin completes its first trans-Atlantic flight, landing at Lakehurst, New Jersey, United States.

1932 Tata Airlines (later to become Air India) makes its first flight.

1934 The Soviet Republic of China collapses when Chiang Kai-shek’s National Revolutionary Army successfully encircles Ruijin, forcing the fleeing Communists to begin the Long March.

1939 The New York Municipal Airport (later renamed LaGuardia Airport) is dedicated.

1940 The President of Catalonia, Lluís Companys, is executed by the Spanish dictatorship of Francisco Franco, making him the only European president to have been executed.

1944 The Arrow Cross Party (very similar to Hitler’s NSDAP (Nazi party)) takes power in Hungary.

1945 World War II: The former premier of Vichy France Pierre Laval is shot by a firing squad for treason.

1951 Mexican chemist Luis E. Miramontes conducts the very last step of the first synthesis of norethisterone, the progestin that would later be used in one of the first three oral contraceptives.

1951 The first episode of I Love Lucy, an American television sitcom starring Lucille Ball, Desi Arnaz, Vivian Vance, and William Frawley, airs on the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS).

1953 British nuclear test Totem 1 is detonated at Emu Field, South Australia.

1954 Hurricane Hazel devastates the eastern seaboard, killing 95 and causing massive floods as far north as Toronto. As a Category 4 upon landfall, it is the strongest storm on record to strike as far north as North Carolina.

1956 Fortran, the first modern computer language, is shared with the coding community for the first time.

1965 Vietnam War: The Catholic Worker Movement stages an anti-war rally in Manhattan including a public burning of a draft card; the first such act to result in arrest under a new amendment to the Selective Service Act.

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Did You Know That Today Is . . .

October 13 in History

54 Roman Emperor Claudius is poisoned to death under mysterious circumstances. His 17-year-old stepson Nero succeeds him to the Roman throne.

409 Vandals and Alans cross the Pyrenees and appear in Hispania.

1307 Hundreds of Knights Templar in France are simultaneously arrested by agents of Phillip the Fair, to be later tortured into a “confession” of heresy.

1332 Rinchinbal Khan, Emperor Ningzong of Yuan becomes the Khagan of the Mongols and Emperor of the Yuan Dynasty, reigning for only 53 days.

1582 Because of the implementation of the Gregorian calendar, this day does not exist in this year in Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain.

1644 A Swedish–Dutch fleet defeats the Danish fleet at Fehmarn and captures about 1,000 prisoners.

1710 Port Royal, the capital of French Acadia, falls in a siege by British forces.

1773 The Whirlpool Galaxy is discovered by Charles Messier.

1775 The United States Continental Congress orders the establishment of the Continental Navy (later renamed the United States Navy).

1792 In Washington, D.C., the cornerstone of the United States Executive Mansion (known as the White House since 1818) is laid.

1812 War of 1812: Battle of Queenston Heights As part of the Niagara campaign in Ontario, Canada, United States forces under General Stephen Van Rensselaer are repulsed from invading Canada by British and native troops led by Sir Isaac Brock.

1843 In New York City, Henry Jones and 11 others found B’nai B’rith (the oldest Jewish service organization in the world).

1845 A majority of voters in the Republic of Texas approve a proposed constitution that, if accepted by the U.S. Congress, will make Texas a U.S. state.

1881 First known conversation in modern Hebrew by Eliezer Ben-Yehuda and friends.

1884 Greenwich, in London, England, is established as Universal Time meridian of longitude.

1885 The Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) is founded in Atlanta, United States.

1892 Edward Emerson Barnard discovers D/1892 T1, the first comet discovered by photographic means, on the night of October 13–14.

1911 Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, becomes the first Governor-General of Canada of royal descent.

1914 In Major League Baseball’s World Series, the Boston Braves defeat the Philadelphia Athletics, 4 games to 0, at Fenway Park in Boston, completing the first World Series sweep in history.

1915 The Battle of the Hohenzollern Redoubt marks the end of the Battle of Loos in northern France, World War I.

1917 The “Miracle of the Sun” is witnessed by an estimated 70,000 people in the Cova da Iria in Fátima, Portugal.

1918 Mehmed Talat Pasha and the Young Turk (C.U.P.) ministry resign and sign an armistice, ending Ottoman participation in World War I.

1921 The Soviet republics of Russia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia sign the Treaty of Kars with the Grand National Assembly of Turkey to establish the contemporary borders between Turkey and the South Caucasus states.

1923 Ankara replaces Istanbul as the capital of Turkey.

1943 The new government of Italy sides with the Allies and declares war on Germany.

1944 Riga, the capital of Latvia is occupied by the Red Army.

1946 France adopts the constitution of the Fourth Republic.

1958 Paddington Bear, a classic character from English children’s literature, makes his debut.

1962 The Pacific Northwest experiences a cyclone the equal of a Cat 3 hurricane. Winds measured above 150 mph at several locations; 46 people died.

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Crazy Historical Anniversaries for October 6th!!

105 BC The Cimbri inflict the heaviest defeat on the Roman army of Gnaeus Mallius Maximus.

69 BC Forces of the Roman Republic led by Lucullus defeat the army of the Kingdom of Armenia led by King Tigranes the Great.

23 Rebels kill and decapitate the Xin Dynasty emperor Wang Mang two days after the capital Chang’an is sacked during a peasant rebellion.

404 Byzantine Empress Eudoxia has her seventh and last pregnancy which ends in a miscarriage. She is left bleeding and dies of an infection shortly after.

1539 Spanish conquistador Hernando de Soto and his army enter the Apalachee capital of Anhaica (present-day Tallahassee, Florida) by force.

1582 Because of the implementation of the Gregorian calendar, this day is skipped in Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain.

1600 Jacopo Peri’s Euridice, the earliest surviving opera, receives its première performance in Florence, signifying the beginning of the Baroque Period

1683 German immigrant families found Germantown in the colony of Pennsylvania, marking the first major immigration of German people to America.

1723 Benjamin Franklin arrives in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, at the age of 17.

1762 Seven Years’ War: conclusion of the Battle of Manila between Britain and Spain, which resulted in the British occupation of Manila for the rest of the war.

1777 General Sir Henry Clinton leads British forces in the capture of Continental Army Hudson River defenses in the Battle of Forts Clinton and Montgomery.

1789 Louis XVI returns to Paris from Versailles after being confronted by the Parisian women on 5 October

1849 The execution of the 13 Martyrs of Arad after the Hungarian war of independence.

1854 England: The Great fire of Newcastle and Gateshead starts shortly after midnight, leading to 53 deaths and hundreds injured.

1876 The American Library Association was founded.

1884 The Naval War College of the United States Navy is founded in Newport, Rhode Island.

1889 American inventor Thomas Edison shows his first motion picture.

1903 The High Court of Australia sits for the first time.

1908 Austria-Hungary annexes Bosnia-Herzegovina, sparking a crisis.

1910 Eleftherios Venizelos is elected Prime Minister of Greece for the first time (seven times in total).

1923 The great powers of World War I withdraw from Istanbul.

1927 Opening of The Jazz Singer, the first prominent talking movie.

1939 Germany’s invasion of Poland ends with the surrender of Polesia army after the Battle of Kock

1942  The October Matanikau action on Guadalcanal begins as United States Marine Corps forces attack Imperial Japanese Army units along the Matanikau River.

1945  Billy Sianis and his pet billy goat are ejected from Wrigley Field during Game 4 of the 1945 World Series.

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What Happened today on October 3rd in History?

52 BC Vercingetorix, leader of the Gauls, surrenders to the Romans under Julius Caesar, ending the siege and Battle of Alesia.

42 BC First Battle of Philippi: Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fight a decisive battle with Caesar’s assassins Brutus and Cassius.

382 Roman Emperor Theodosius I concludes a peace treaty with the Goths and settles them in the Balkans in exchange for military service.

1283 Dafydd ap Gruffydd, prince of Gwynedd in Wales, is the first nobleman to be executed by hanging, drawing and quartering.

1574 The Siege of Leiden is lifted by the Watergeuzen.

1683 The Qing dynasty naval commander Shi Lang reaches Taiwan (under the Kingdom of Tungning) to receive the formal surrender of Zheng Keshuang and Liu Guoxuan after the Battle of Penghu.

1712 The Duke of Montrose issues a warrant for the arrest of Rob Roy MacGregor.

1739 The Treaty of Niš is signed by the Ottoman Empire and Russia at the end of the Russian–Turkish War, 1736–39.

1778 Captain James Cook anchors in Alaska.

1789 George Washington makes the first Thanksgiving Day designated by the national government of the United States of America.

1835 The Staedtler company is founded in Nuremberg, Germany.

1849 American author Edgar Allan Poe is found delirious in a gutter in Baltimore under mysterious circumstances; it is the last time he is seen in public before his death.

1863 The last Thursday in November is declared as Thanksgiving Day by United States President Abraham Lincoln as are Thursdays, November 30, 1865 and November 29, 1866.

1872 The Bloomingdale brothers open their first store at 938 Third Avenue, New York City.

1873 Captain Jack and companions are hanged for their part in the Modoc War.
1912 U.S. forces defeat Nicaraguan rebels under the command of Benjamín Zeledón at the Battle of Coyotepe Hill.

1918 King Boris III of Bulgaria accedes to the throne.

1919 Cincinnati Reds pitcher Adolfo Luque becomes the first Latin player to appear in a World Series.

1929 The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes is renamed to Kingdom of Yugoslavia, “Land of the South Slavs”.

1932 Iraq gains independence from the United Kingdom.

1935 Second Italo-Abyssinian War: Italy invades Ethiopia under General de Bono.

1942 Spaceflight: The first successful launch of a V-2 /A4-rocket from Test Stand VII at Peenemünde, Germany. It is the first man-made object to reach space.

1949 WERD, the first black-owned radio station in the United States, opens in Atlanta.
1950 Korean War: The First Battle of Maryang San, primarily pitting Australian and British forces against communist China, begins.

1952 The United Kingdom successfully tests a nuclear weapon to become the world’s third nuclear power.

1955 The Mickey Mouse Club debuts on ABC.

1957 The California State Superior Court rules that Allen Ginsberg’s Howl and Other Poems is not obscene.

1961 The Dick Van Dyke Show premieres on CBS-TV in the United States.

1962 Project Mercury: Sigma 7 is launched from Cape Canaveral, with astronaut Wally Schirra aboard, for a six-orbit, nine-hour flight.

1963 A violent coup in Honduras pre-empts the October 13 election, ends a period of reform, and begins two decades of military rule.

1964 First buffalo wings are made at the Anchor Bar in Buffalo, New York.

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What Happened in History on October 2nd?

829 Theophilos (813–842), succeeds his father as Byzantine Emperor.

1187 Siege of Jerusalem: Saladin captures Jerusalem after 88 years of Crusader rule.

1263 The battle of Largs is fought between Norwegians and Scots.

1470 A rebellion organized by Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick forces King Edward IV of England to flee to the Netherlands, restoring Henry VI to the throne.

1535 Jacques Cartier discovers the area where Montreal is now located.

1552 Conquest of Kazan by Ivan the Terrible.

1780 John André, British Army officer of the American Revolutionary War, is hanged as a spy by American forces.

1789 George Washington sends proposed Constitutional amendments (The United States Bill of Rights) to the States for ratification.

1814 Spanish Royalists troops under Mariano Osorio defeats rebel Chilean forces of Bernardo O’Higgins and José Miguel Carrera.

1835 The Texas Revolution begins with the Battle of Gonzales: Mexican soldiers attempt to disarm the people of Gonzales, Texas, but encounter stiff resistance from a hastily assembled militia.

1864 American Civil War: Battle of Saltville Union forces attack Saltville, Virginia, but are defeated by Confederate troops.

1889 In Colorado, Nicholas Creede strikes it rich in silver during the last great silver boom of the American Old West.

1919 U.S. President Woodrow Wilson suffers a massive stroke, leaving him partially paralyzed.

1925 John Logie Baird performs the first test of a working television system.

1928 The “Prelature of the Holy Cross and the Work of God”, commonly known as Opus Dei, is founded by Saint Josemaría Escrivá.

1937 Dominican Republic strongman Rafael Trujillo orders the execution of the Haitian population living within the borderlands; approximately 20,000 are killed over the next five days.

1941  In Operation Typhoon, Germany begins an all-out offensive against Moscow.

1942 Ocean Liner RMS Queen Mary accidentally rams and sinks her own escort ship, HMS Curacoa, off the coast of Ireland.

1944 World War II: German troops end the Warsaw Uprising.

1950 Peanuts by Charles M. Schulz is first published.

1958 Guinea declares its independence from France.

1959 The anthology series The Twilight Zone premieres on CBS television.

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What Happened Today in History . . .

For September 30th:

489 The Ostrogoths under king Theoderic the Great defeat the forces of Odoacer for the second time at Verona (Northern Italy).

737 Turgesh drive back an Umayyad invasion of Khuttal, follow them south of the Oxus and capture their baggage train.

1399 Henry IV is proclaimed King of England.

1541 Spanish conquistador Hernando de Soto and his forces enter Tula territory in present-day western Arkansas, encountering fierce resistance.

1744 France and Spain defeat the Kingdom of Sardinia at the Battle of Madonna dell’Olmo.

1791 The first performance of The Magic Flute, the last opera by Mozart to make its debut, took place at Freihaus-Theater auf der Wieden in Vienna, Austria.

1791 The National Constituent Assembly in Paris is dissolved; Parisians hail Maximilien Robespierre and Jérôme Pétion as “incorruptible patriots”.

1813 Battle of Bárbula: Simón Bolívar defeats Santiago Bobadilla.

1860 Britain’s first tram service begins in Birkenhead, Merseyside.

1882 Thomas Edison’s first commercial hydroelectric power plant (later known as Appleton Edison Light Company) begins operation on the Fox River in Appleton, Wisconsin, United States.

1888 Jack the Ripper kills his third and fourth victims, Elizabeth Stride and Catherine Eddowes.

1895 Madagascar becomes a French protectorate.

1903 The new Gresham’s School is officially opened by Field Marshal Sir Evelyn Wood.

1906 The Royal Galician Academy, Galician language’s biggest linguistic authority, starts working in Havana.

1907 McKinley National Memorial, the final resting place of assassinated U.S. President William McKinley and his family, is dedicated in Canton, Ohio.

1927 Babe Ruth becomes the first baseball player to hit 60 home runs in a season.

1931 Start of “Die Voortrekkers” youth movement for Afrikaners in Bloemfontein, South Africa.

1935 The Hoover Dam, astride the border between the U.S. states of Arizona and Nevada, is dedicated.

1938 At 2:00 am, Britain, France, Germany and Italy sign the Munich Agreement, allowing Germany to occupy the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia.

1938 The League of Nations unanimously outlaws “intentional bombings of civilian populations”.

1939 General Władysław Sikorski becomes commander-in-chief of the Polish Government in exile.

1939 NBC broadcasts the first televised American football game between the Waynesburg Yellow Jackets and the Fordham Rams. Fordham won the game 34-7.

1941 World War II: Holocaust in Kiev, Ukraine: German Einsatzgruppe C complete Babi Yar massacre.

1945 The Bourne End rail crash, in Hertfordshire, England, kills 43

1947 Pakistan and Yemen join the United Nations.

1947 The World Series, featuring the New York Yankees and the Brooklyn Dodgers, is televised for the first time.

1949 The Berlin Airlift ends.

1954 The U.S. Navy submarine USS Nautilus is commissioned as the world’s first nuclear reactor powered vessel.

1955 Film star James Dean dies in a road accident aged 24.

1962 Mexican-American labor leader César Chávez founds the National Farm Workers Association, which later becomes United Farm Workers.

1962 James Meredith enters the University of Mississippi, defying segregation.

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What Happened Today September 26th!

46 BC Julius Caesar dedicates a temple to his mythical ancestor Venus Genetrix in accordance with a vow he made at the battle of Pharsalus.

715 Ragenfrid defeats Theudoald at the Battle of Compiègne.

1087 William II is crowned King of England, and reigns until 1100.

1212 Golden Bull of Sicily is issued to confirm the hereditary royal title in Bohemia for the Přemyslid dynasty.

1345 Frisians defeat Holland in the Battle of Warns.

1371 Serbian–Turkish wars: The forces of the Ottoman sultan Murad I’s lieutenant Lala Şahin Pasha and the Serbian army under the command of Vukašin Mrnjavčević and Jovan Uglješa clash at the Battle of Maritsa.

1493 Pope Alexander VI issues the papal bull Dudum siquidem to the Catholic Monarchs, extending the grant of new lands he made them in Inter caetera

1580 Sir Francis Drake finishes his circumnavigation of the Earth.

1687 The Parthenon in Athens is partially destroyed by an explosion caused by the bombing from Venetian forces led by Morosini who are besieging the Ottoman Turks stationed in Athens.

1687 The city council of Amsterdam votes to support William of Orange’s invasion of England, which became the Glorious Revolution.

1777  British troops occupy Philadelphia.

1786 Protestors shut down the court in Springfield, Massachusetts in a military standoff that begins Shays’ Rebellion.

1789 Thomas Jefferson is appointed the first United States Secretary of State, John Jay is appointed the first Chief Justice of the United States, Samuel Osgood is appointed the first United States Postmaster General, and Edmund Randolph is appointed the first United States Attorney General.

1792 Marc-David Lasource begins accusing Maximilien Robespierre of wanting a dictatorship for France.

1810 A new Act of Succession is adopted by the Riksdag of the Estates and Jean Baptiste Bernadotte becomes heir to the Swedish throne.

1872 The first Shriners Temple (called Mecca) is established in New York City.

1907 New Zealand and Newfoundland each become dominions within the British Empire.
1908 the Norwegian football club SK Brann was founded.

1910 Indian journalist Swadeshabhimani Ramakrishna Pillai is arrested after publishing criticism of the government of Travancore and exiled.

1914 The United States Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is established by the Federal Trade Commission Act.
1917 The Battle of Polygon Wood begins.

1918  The Meuse-Argonne Offensive, the bloodiest single battle in American history, begins.

1923 Gustav Stresemann resumes the Weimar Republic’s payment of reparations.

1933 As gangster Machine Gun Kelly surrenders to the FBI, he shouts out, “Don’t shoot, G-Men!”, which becomes a nickname for FBI agents.

1933 Ten convicts escape from the Indiana State Prison with guns smuggled into the prison by bank robber John Dillinger

1934 Steamship RMS Queen Mary is launched.

1942 August Frank, a higher official of the SS concentration camp administration department, issues a memorandum containing a great deal of operational detail in how Jews should be “evacuated”.

1944 Operation Market Garden fails.

1944  On the central front of the Gothic Line Brazilian troops control the Serchio valley region after ten days of fighting.

1950 United Nations troops recapture Seoul from North Korean forces.
1950 Indonesia is admitted to the United Nations.

1954 Japanese rail ferry Tōya Maru sinks during a typhoon in the Tsugaru Strait, Japan killing 1,172.

1959 Typhoon Vera, the strongest typhoon to hit Japan in recorded history, makes landfall, killing 4,580 people and leaving nearly 1.6 million others homeless.

1960 In Chicago, the first televised debate takes place between presidential candidates Richard M. Nixon and John F. Kennedy.

1960 Fidel Castro announces Cuba’s support for the U.S.S.R.

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Teaspoon of History: September 25th

275 In Rome, the Senate proclaims Marcus Claudius Tacitus Emperor.

1066 The Battle of Stamford Bridge marks the end of the Viking invasions of England.

1237 England and Scotland sign the Treaty of York, establishing the location of their common border.

1396 Ottoman Emperor Bayezid I defeats a Christian army at the Battle of Nicopolis.

1513 Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa reaches what would become known as the Pacific Ocean.

1555 The Peace of Augsburg is signed in Augsburg by Charles V and the princes of the Schmalkaldic League.

1690 Publick Occurrences Both Forreign and Domestick, the first newspaper to appear in the Americas, is published for the first and only time.

1775 Ethan Allen surrenders to British forces after attempting to capture Montreal during the Battle of Longue-Pointe. Benedict Arnold and his expeditionary company set off from Fort Western, bound for Quebec City.

1789 The United States Congress passes twelve amendments to the United States Constitution: the Congressional Apportionment Amendment (which was never ratified), the Congressional Compensation Amendment, and the ten that are known as the Bill of Rights.

1790 Peking opera is born when the Four Great Anhui Troupes introduce Anhui opera to Beijing in honor of the Qianlong Emperor’s eightieth birthday.

1804 The Teton Sioux demand one of the boats from the Lewis and Clark Expedition as a toll for allowing the expedition to move further upriver.

1846 U.S. forces led by Zachary Taylor capture the Mexican city of Monterrey.

1868 The Imperial Russian steam frigate Alexander Nevsky is shipwrecked off Jutland while carrying Grand Duke Alexei of Russia.

1890 The United States Congress establishes Sequoia National Park.

1906 In the presence of the king and before a great crowd, Leonardo Torres Quevedo successfully demonstrates the invention of the Telekino in the port of Bilbao, guiding a boat from the shore, in what is considered the birth of the remote control.

1911 Ground is broken for Fenway Park in Boston

1911 An explosion of badly degraded propellant charges on board the French battleship Liberté detonates the forward ammunition magazines and destroys the ship.

1912 Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism is founded in New York City.

1915 World War I: The Second Battle of Champagne begins.

1926 The international Convention to Suppress the Slave Trade and Slavery is first signed.

1929 Jimmy Doolittle performs the first blind flight from Mitchel Field proving that full instrument flying from take off to landing is possible.

1937 The Chinese Eighth Route Army gains a minor, but morale-boosting victory in the Battle of Pingxingguan.

1942  Swiss Police Instruction of September 25, 1942 this instruction denied entry into Switzerland to Jewish refugees.

1944 Surviving elements of the British 1st Airborne Division withdraw from Arnhem in the Netherlands, thus ending the Battle of Arnhem and Operation Market Garden.

1955 The Royal Jordanian Air Force is founded.

1956 TAT-1, the first submarine transatlantic telephone cable system, is inaugurated.

1957 Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, is integrated by the use of United States Army troops.

1959 Solomon Bandaranaike, Prime Minister of Sri Lanka is mortally wounded by a Buddhist monk, Talduwe Somarama, and dies the next day.

1962 The People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria is formally proclaimed. Ferhat Abbas is elected President of the provisional government.

1962 The North Yemen Civil War begins when Abdullah as-Sallal dethrones the newly crowned Imam al-Badr and declares Yemen a republic under his presidency.

1963 Lord Denning releases the UK government’s official report on the Profumo Affair.

1964 The Mozambican War of Independence against Portugal begins.

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