Okay…Okay….What happened today in History?

As you may have noticed, I never detail anything after 1964 because that to me is not history being born in that year.  To me that is just the era I live in:

637 Antioch surrenders to the Muslim forces under Rashidun Caliphate after the Battle of the Iron Bridge.

758 Guangzhou is sacked by Arab and Persian pirates.

1137 Battle of Rignano between Ranulf of Apulia and Roger II of Sicily.

1270 The Eighth Crusade and siege of Tunis end by an agreement between Charles I of Sicily (brother to King Louis IX of France, who had died months earlier) and the sultan of Tunis.

1340 Portuguese and Castilian forces halt a Marinid invasion at the Battle of Río Salado.

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1485 King Henry VII of England is crowned.

1501 Ballet of Chestnuts: A banquet held by Cesare Borgia in the Papal Palace where fifty prostitutes or courtesans are in attendance for the entertainment of the guests.

1534 English Parliament passes Act of Supremacy, making King Henry VIII head of the English church – a role formerly held by the Pope.

1657 Spanish forces fail to retake Jamaica at the Battle of Ocho Rios during the Anglo-Spanish War.

1757 Mustafa III became Ottoman Sultan.

1806 Believing he is facing a much larger force, Prussian Lieutenant General Friedrich von Romberg, commanding 5,300 men, surrendered the city of Stettin to 800 French soldiers commanded by General Lassalle.

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1817 The independent government of Venezuela is established by Simón Bolívar.

1831 In Southampton County, Virginia, escaped slave Nat Turner is captured and arrested for leading the bloodiest slave rebellion in United States history.

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1863 Danish Prince Wilhelm arrives in Athens to assume his throne as George I, King of the Hellenes.

1864 Second Schleswig War ends. Denmark renounces all claim to Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg, which come under Prussian and Austrian administration.

1864 Helena, Montana is founded after four prospectors discover gold at “Last Chance Gulch”.

1888 Rudd Concession granted by King Lobengula of Matabeleland to agents of Cecil Rhodes led by Charles Rudd.

1894 Domenico Melegatti obtains a patent for a procedure to be applied in producing pandoro industrially.

1905 Czar Nicholas II of Russia grants Russia’s first constitution, creating a legislative assembly.

1918 The Ottoman Empire signs an armistice with the Allies, ending the First World War in the Middle East.

1920 The Communist Party of Australia is founded in Sydney.

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1922 Benito Mussolini is made Prime Minister of Italy.

1925 John Logie Baird creates Britain’s first television transmitter.

1929 The Stuttgart Cable Car is constructed in Stuttgart, Germany.
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1938 Orson Welles broadcasts his radio play of H. G. Wells’s The War of the Worlds, causing anxiety in some of the audience in the United States.

1941 Franklin Delano Roosevelt approves U.S. $1 billion in Lend-Lease aid to the Allied nations.

1941 One thousand five hundred Jews from Pidhaytsi (in western Ukraine) are sent by Nazis to Bełżec extermination camp.

1942 Lt. Tony Fasson, Able Seaman Colin Grazier and canteen assistant Tommy Brown from HMS Petard board U-559, retrieving material which would lead to the decryption of the German Enigma code.

1944 Anne Frank and sister Margot Frank are deported from Auschwitz to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp.

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1945 Jackie Robinson of the Kansas City Monarchs signs a contract for the Brooklyn Dodgers to break the baseball color barrier.

1947 The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which is the foundation of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), is founded.

1950 Pope Pius XII witnesses the “Miracle of the Sun” while at the Vatican.

1953 Cold War: U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower formally approves the top secret document National Security Council Paper No. 162/2, which states that the United States’ arsenal of nuclear weapons must be maintained and expanded to counter the communist threat.

1960 Michael Woodruff performs the first successful kidney transplant in the United Kingdom at the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary.

1961 Nuclear testing: The Soviet Union detonates the hydrogen bomb Tsar Bomba over Novaya Zemlya; at 50 megatons of yield, it is still the largest explosive device ever detonated, nuclear or otherwise.

1961 Because of “violations of Lenin’s precepts”, it is decreed that Joseph Stalin’s body be removed from its place of honour inside Lenin’s tomb and buried near the Kremlin Wall with a plain granite marker instead.

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What the heck? This is what happened on October 29th

Today in History….

539 BC Cyrus the Great (founder of Persian Empire) entered capital of Babylon and allowed the Jews to return to their land.

312 Constantine the Great enters Rome after his victory at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, stages a grand adventus in the city, and is met with popular jubilation. Maxentius’ body is fished out of the Tiber and beheaded.

437 Valentinian III, Western Roman Emperor, marries Licinia Eudoxia, daughter of his cousin Theodosius II, Eastern Roman Emperor in Constantinople unifying the two branches of the House of Theodosius.

969 Byzantine troops occupy Antioch Syria.

1268 Conradin, the last legitimate male heir of the Hohenstaufen dynasty of Kings of Germany and Holy Roman Emperors, is executed along with his companion Frederick I, Margrave of Baden by Charles I of Sicily, a political rival and ally to the hostile Roman Catholic Church.

1390 First trial for witchcraft in Paris leading to the death of three people.

1422 Charles VII of France becomes king in succession to his father Charles VI of France though he isn’t officially crowned king until 1429.

1467 Battle of Brustem: Charles the Bold defeats Liège.

1611 Russian homage to the King of Poland, Sigismund III Vasa.

1618 English adventurer, writer, and courtier Sir Walter Raleigh is beheaded for allegedly conspiring against James I of England.

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1658 Naval forces of the Dutch Republic defeat the Swedes in the Battle of the Sound.

1665 Battle of Ambuila, in which Portuguese forces defeat the forces of the Kingdom of Kongo and decapitated king António I of Kongo, also called Nvita a Nkanga.

1675 Leibniz makes the first use of the long s (∫) as a symbol of the integral in calculus.

1787 Mozart’s opera Don Giovanni receives its first performance in Prague.

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1792 Mount Hood (Oregon) is named after the British naval officer Alexander Arthur Hood by Lt. William E. Broughton who spotted the mountain near the mouth of the Willamette River.

1863 Eighteen countries meet in Geneva and agree to form the International Red Cross.

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1863 Battle of Wauhatchie Forces under Union General Ulysses S. Grant repel a Confederate attack led by General James Longstreet. Union forces thus open a supply line into Chattanooga, Tennessee.

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1886 The first ticker tape parade takes place in New York City when office workers spontaneously throw ticker tape into the streets as the Statue of Liberty is dedicated.

1888 The Convention of Constantinople is signed, guaranteeing free maritime passage through the Suez Canal during war and peace.

1901 In Amherst, Massachusetts nurse Jane Toppan is arrested for murdering the Davis family of Boston with an overdose of morphine.

1901 Capital punishment: Leon Czolgosz, the assassin of U.S. President William McKinley, is executed by electrocution.

1918 The German High Seas Fleet is incapacitated when sailors mutiny on the night of the 29th-30th, an action which would trigger the German Revolution of 1918–19.

1921 The Link River Dam, a part of the Klamath Reclamation Project, is completed.

1921 Second trial of Sacco and Vanzetti in the United States of America.

1921 The Harvard University football team loses to Centre College, ending a 25 game winning streak. This is considered one of the biggest upsets in college football.

1922 King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, appoints Benito Mussolini as Prime Minister.

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1923 Turkey becomes a republic following the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire.

1929 The New York Stock Exchange crashes in what will be called the Crash of ’29 or “Black Tuesday”, ending the Great Bull Market of the 1920s and beginning the Great Depression.

1941 In the Kaunas Ghetto over 10,000 Jews are shot by German occupiers at the Ninth Fort, a massacre known as the “Great Action”.

1942 In the United Kingdom, leading clergymen and political figures hold a public meeting to register outrage over Nazi Germany’s persecution of Jews.

1944 The city of Breda in the Netherlands is liberated by 1st Polish Armoured Division.

1944 World War II: The Soviet Red Army enters Hungary.

1945 Getúlio Vargas, president of Brazil, resigns.

1948 Safsaf massacre.

1953 BCPA Flight 304 DC-6 crashes near San Francisco. Pianist William Kapell is among the 19 killed.

1955 The Soviet battleship Novorossiysk strikes a World War II mine in the harbor at Sevastopol.

1956 Suez Crisis begins: Israeli forces invade the Sinai Peninsula and push Egyptian forces back toward the Suez Canal.

1956 The Tangier Protocol is signed: The international city Tangier is reintegrated into Morocco.

1957 Israel’s prime minister David Ben-Gurion and five of his ministers are injured when a hand grenade is tossed into Israel’s parliament, the Knesset.

1960 In Louisville, Kentucky, Cassius Clay (who later takes the name Muhammad Ali) wins his first professional fight.

1960 An airplane carrying the Cal Poly football team crashes on takeoff in Toledo, Ohio.
1961 Syria exits from the United Arab Republic.

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Hear Ye! Hear Ye! On this day, these events occured

October 23rd . . .

42 BC At the Second Battle of Philippi Mark Antony and Octavian decisively defeat Brutus’s army. Brutus commits suicide.

425 Valentinian III is elevated as Roman emperor at the age of 6.

501 The Synodus Palmaris, called by Gothic king Theoderic the Great, discharges Pope Symmachus of all charges, thus ending the schism of Antipope Laurentius.

1086 At the Battle of az-Zallaqah, the army of Yusuf ibn Tashfin defeats the forces of Castilian King Alfonso VI.

1157 The Battle of Grathe Heath ends the civil war in Denmark. King Sweyn III is killed and Valdemar I restores the country.

1295 The first treaty forming the Auld Alliance between Scotland and France against England is signed in Paris.

1641 Outbreak of the Irish Rebellion of 1641.

1642 First major battle of the First English Civil War.

1694 British/American colonial forces, led by Sir William Phips, fail to seize Quebec from the French.

1707 The first Parliament of Great Britain meets.

1739 British Prime Minister Robert Walpole, reluctantly declares war on Spain.

1812 Claude François de Malet, a French general, begins a conspiracy to overthrow Napoleon Bonaparte, claiming that the Emperor died in Russia and that he is now the commandant of Paris.

1850 The first National Women’s Rights Convention begins in Worcester, Massachusetts, United States.

1861 U.S. President Abraham Lincoln suspends the writ of habeas corpus in Washington, D.C., for all military-related cases.

1864 American Civil War: Battle of Westport Union forces under General Samuel R. Curtis defeat Confederate troops led by General Sterling Price at Westport, near Kansas City.

1867 72 Senators are summoned by Royal Proclamation to serve as the first members of the Canadian Senate.

1870 Franco-Prussian War: the Siege of Metz concludes with a decisive Prussian victory.

1906 Alberto Santos-Dumont flies an airplane in the first heavier-than-air flight in Europe at Champs de Bagatelle, Paris, France.

1911 First use of aircraft in war: An Italian pilot takes off from Libya to observe Turkish army lines during the Italo-Turkish War.

1912 The Battle of Kumanovo between the Serbian and Ottoman armies begins.

1915 In New York City, 25,000-33,000 women march on Fifth Avenue to advocate their right to vote.

1917 Lenin calls for the October Revolution.

1929 Great Depression: After a steady decline in stock market prices since a peak in September, the New York Stock Exchange begins to show signs of panic.

1935 Dutch Schultz, Abe Landau, Otto Berman, and Bernard “Lulu” Rosencrantz are fatally shot at a saloon in Newark, New Jersey in what will become known as The Chophouse Massacre.

1939 The Japanese Mitsubishi G4M twin-engine “Betty” Bomber makes its maiden flight.

1941 Field Marshal Georgy Zhukov takes command of Red Army operations to prevent the further advance into Russia of German forces and to prevent the Wehrmacht from capturing Moscow.

1942 Second Battle of El Alamein: At El Alamein in northern Egypt, the British Eighth Army under Field Marshal Montgomery begins a critical offensive to expel the Axis armies from Egypt.

1942 The Battle for Henderson Field begins during the Guadalcanal Campaign and ends on October 26.

1944 World War II: Battle of Leyte Gulf The largest naval battle in history begins in the Philippines.

1946 The United Nations General Assembly convenes for the first time, at an auditorium in Flushing, Queens, New York City.

1955 Prime Minister Ngô Đình Diệm defeats former emperor Bảo Đại in a referendum and founds the Republic of Vietnam.

1956 Thousands of Hungarians protest against the government and Soviet occupation. (The Hungarian Revolution is crushed on November 4).

1958 The Springhill Mine bump An underground earthquake traps 174 miners in the No. 2 colliery at Springhill, Nova Scotia, the deepest coal mine in North America at the time. By November 1, rescuers from around the world had dug out 100 of the victims, marking the death toll at 74.

1958 The Smurfs, a fictional race of blue dwarves, later popularized in a Hanna-Barbera animated cartoon series, appear for the first time in the story La flute à six schtroumpfs, a Johan and Peewit adventure by Peyo, which is serialized in the weekly Spirou magazine.

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A Light Historical Day

Oh October 20th you seem a bit dull compared to other days!

1548 The city of Nuestra Señora de La Paz (Our Lady of Peace) is founded by Alonso de Mendoza by appointment of the king of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V.

1572 Relief of Goes, Cristóbal de Mondragón with 3000 soldiers of the Spanish Tercios, release the siege of the city.

1720 Caribbean pirate Calico Jack is captured by the Royal Navy.

1740 Maria Theresa takes the throne of Austria. France, Prussia, Bavaria and Saxony refuse to honour the Pragmatic Sanction and the War of the Austrian Succession begins.

1781 Patent of Toleration, providing limited freedom of worship, is approved in Habsburg Monarchy.

1803 The United States Senate ratifies the Louisiana Purchase.

1818 The Convention of 1818 signed between the United States and the United Kingdom which, among other things, settles the Canada–United States border on the 49th parallel for most of its length.

1827 A combined Turkish and Egyptian armada is defeated by British, French, and Russian naval force in the port of Navarino in Pylos, Greece.

1873 Yale, Princeton, Columbia, and Rutgers universities draft the first code of American football rules.

1883 Peru and Chile sign the Treaty of Ancón, by which the Tarapacá province is ceded to the latter, bringing an end to Peru’s involvement in the War of the Pacific.

1904 Chile and Bolivia sign the Treaty of Peace and Friendship, delimiting the border between the two countries.

1910 The hull of the RMS Olympic, sister-ship to the ill-fated RMS Titanic, is launched from the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast, Northern Ireland.

1935 The Long March, a mammoth retreat undertaken by the armed forces of the Chinese Communist Party a year prior, ends.

1939 Pope Pius XII publishes his first major encyclical entitled Summi Pontificatus.

1941  Thousands of civilians in Kragujevac in German-occupied Serbia are murdered in the Kragujevac massacre.

1943 The cargo vessel Sinfra is attacked by Allied aircraft at Souda Bay, Crete, and sunk. 2,098 Italian prisoners of war drown with it.

1944 The Soviet Army and Yugoslav Partisans liberate Belgrade, the capital of Yugoslavia

1944 Liquid natural gas leaks from storage tanks in Cleveland, then explodes; the explosion and resulting fire level 30 blocks and kill 130.

1944 American general Douglas MacArthur fulfills his promise to return to the Philippines when he commands an Allied assault on the islands, reclaiming them from the Japanese during the Second World War.

1946 Government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam decides that October 20 is Vietnam Women’s Day.

1947 The House Un-American Activities Committee begins its investigation into Communist infiltration of Hollywood, resulting in a blacklist that prevents some from working in the industry for years.

1947 United States of America and Islamic Republic of Pakistan establish diplomatic relations for the first time.

1951 The “Johnny Bright incident” occurs in Stillwater, Oklahoma

1952 Governor Evelyn Baring declares a state of emergency in Kenya and begins arresting hundreds of suspected leaders of the Mau Mau Uprising, including Jomo Kenyatta, the future first President of Kenya.

1961 The Soviet Union performs the first armed test of a submarine-launched ballistic missile, launching an R-13 from a Golf-class submarine.

1962 People’s Republic of China launches simultaneous offensives in Ladakh and across the McMahon Line, igniting the Sino-Indian War.

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What’s up with October 17th?

539 BC Cyrus the Great marches into the city of Babylon, releasing the Jews from almost 70 years of exile. Cyrus allows the Jews to return to Yehud Medinata and rebuild the Temple in Jerusalem.

456 Battle of Placentia: Ricimer, supported by Majorian (comes domesticorum), defeats the Roman usurper Avitus near Piacenza (Northern Italy) .

1091 London tornado of 1091: A tornado thought to be of strength T8/F4 strikes the heart of London.

1346 Battle of Neville’s Cross: King David II of Scotland is captured by the English near Durham, and imprisoned in the Tower of London for eleven years.

1448 Second Battle of Kosovo, where the mainly Hungarian army led by John Hunyadi is defeated by an Ottoman army led by Sultan Murad II.

1456 The University of Greifswald is established, making it the second oldest university in northern Europe (also for a period the oldest in Sweden, and Prussia).

1558 Poczta Polska, the Polish postal service, is founded.

1604 Kepler’s Supernova: German astronomer Johannes Kepler observes a supernova in the constellation Ophiuchus.

1610 French king Louis XIII is crowned in Reims Cathedral.

1660 Nine regicides, the men who signed the death warrant of Charles I, are hanged, drawn and quartered.

1662 Charles II of England sells Dunkirk to France for 40,000 pounds.

1771 Premiere in Milan of the opera Ascanio in Alba, composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, age 15.

1777 American Revolutionary War: British General John Burgoyne surrenders his army at Saratoga, New York.

1781 American Revolutionary War: British General Lord Charles Cornwallis surrenders at the Siege of Yorktown.

1800 Britain takes control of the Dutch colony of Curaçao.

1806 Former leader of the Haitian Revolution, Emperor Jacques I of Haiti is assassinated after an oppressive rule.

1814 London Beer Flood occurs in London, killing eight.

1860 First The Open Championship (referred to in North America as the British Open).

1861 Nineteen people are killed in the Cullin-La-Ringo massacre, the deadliest massacre of Europeans by aborigines in Australian history.

1888 Thomas Edison files a patent for the Optical Phonograph (the first movie).
1905 The October Manifesto issued by Tsar Nicholas II of Russia

1907 Guglielmo Marconi’s company begins the first commercial transatlantic wireless service between Glace Bay, Nova Scotia, Canada and Clifden, Ireland.

1912 Bulgaria, Greece and Serbia declare war on the Ottoman Empire, joining Montenegro in the First Balkan War.

1917 First British bombing of Germany in World War I.

1919 RCA is incorporated as the Radio Corporation of America.

1931 Al Capone convicted of income tax evasion.

1933 Albert Einstein flees Nazi Germany and moves to the United States.

1941 For the first time in World War II, a German submarine attacks an American ship.

1941 German troops execute the male population of the villages Kerdyllia in Serres, Greece.

1943 Burma Railway (Burma–Thailand Railway) is completed.

1943 The Holocaust: Sobibór extermination camp is closed.

1945 A massive number of people, headed by CGT, gather in the Plaza de Mayo in Argentina to demand Juan Perón’s release. It calls “el día de la lealtad peronista” (peronista loyalty day)

1945 Archbishop Damaskinos of Athens becomes Prime Minister of Greece between the pull-out of the German occupation force in 1944 and the return of King Georgios II to Greece.

1956 The first commercial nuclear power station is officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II in Sellafield,in Cumbria, England.

1956 Donald Byrne and Bobby Fischer play a famous chess game called The Game of the Century. Fischer beat Byrne and wins a Brilliancy prize.

1961 Scores of Algerian protesters (some claim up to 400) are massacred by the Paris police at the instigation of former Nazi collaborator Maurice Papon, then chief of the Prefecture of Police.

1964 Prime Minister of Australia Robert Menzies opens the artificial Lake Burley Griffin in the middle of the capital Canberra.

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Wild & Crazy Historical Anniversaries . . . .

For October 15th

1066 Edgar the Ætheling is proclaimed King of England, but is never crowned. Reigned until 10 December 1066.

1211 Battle of the Rhyndacus: The Latin emperor Henry of Flanders defeats the Nicaean emperor Theodore I Lascaris.

1529 The Siege of Vienna ends as the Austrians rout the invading Turks, turning the tide against almost a century of unchecked conquest throughout eastern and central Europe by the Ottoman Empire.

1582 Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian calendar. In Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain, October 4 of this year is followed directly by October 15.

1764 Edward Gibbon observes a group of friars singing in the ruined Temple of Jupiter in Rome, which inspires him to begin work on The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.

1783 The Montgolfier brothers’ hot air balloon (tethered) makes the first human ascent, piloted by Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier.

1793 Queen Marie-Antoinette of France is tried and convicted in a swift, pre-determined trial in the Palais de Justice, Paris, and condemned to death the following day.

1815 Napoleon I of France begins his exile on Saint Helena in the Atlantic Ocean.

1863 The H. L. Hunley, the first submarine to sink a ship, sinks during a test, killing its inventor, Horace L. Hunley.

1864 The Battle of Glasgow is fought, resulting in the surrender of Glasgow, Missouri and its Union garrison, to the Confederacy.

1878 The Edison Electric Light Company begins operation.

1880 Mexican soldiers kill Victorio, one of the greatest Apache military strategists.

1888 The “From Hell” letter sent by Jack the Ripper is received by investigators.

1894 The Dreyfus affair: Alfred Dreyfus is arrested for spying.

1904 The Russian Baltic Fleet leaves Reval, Estonia for Port Arthur during the Russo-Japanese War.

1910 Airship America is launched from New Jersey in the first attempt to cross the Atlantic by a powered aircraft.

1917 World War I: At Vincennes outside Paris, Dutch dancer Mata Hari is executed by firing squad for spying for the German Empire.

1928 The airship, Graf Zeppelin completes its first trans-Atlantic flight, landing at Lakehurst, New Jersey, United States.

1932 Tata Airlines (later to become Air India) makes its first flight.

1934 The Soviet Republic of China collapses when Chiang Kai-shek’s National Revolutionary Army successfully encircles Ruijin, forcing the fleeing Communists to begin the Long March.

1939 The New York Municipal Airport (later renamed LaGuardia Airport) is dedicated.

1940 The President of Catalonia, Lluís Companys, is executed by the Spanish dictatorship of Francisco Franco, making him the only European president to have been executed.

1944 The Arrow Cross Party (very similar to Hitler’s NSDAP (Nazi party)) takes power in Hungary.

1945 World War II: The former premier of Vichy France Pierre Laval is shot by a firing squad for treason.

1951 Mexican chemist Luis E. Miramontes conducts the very last step of the first synthesis of norethisterone, the progestin that would later be used in one of the first three oral contraceptives.

1951 The first episode of I Love Lucy, an American television sitcom starring Lucille Ball, Desi Arnaz, Vivian Vance, and William Frawley, airs on the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS).

1953 British nuclear test Totem 1 is detonated at Emu Field, South Australia.

1954 Hurricane Hazel devastates the eastern seaboard, killing 95 and causing massive floods as far north as Toronto. As a Category 4 upon landfall, it is the strongest storm on record to strike as far north as North Carolina.

1956 Fortran, the first modern computer language, is shared with the coding community for the first time.

1965 Vietnam War: The Catholic Worker Movement stages an anti-war rally in Manhattan including a public burning of a draft card; the first such act to result in arrest under a new amendment to the Selective Service Act.

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Did You Know That Today Is . . .

October 13 in History

54 Roman Emperor Claudius is poisoned to death under mysterious circumstances. His 17-year-old stepson Nero succeeds him to the Roman throne.

409 Vandals and Alans cross the Pyrenees and appear in Hispania.

1307 Hundreds of Knights Templar in France are simultaneously arrested by agents of Phillip the Fair, to be later tortured into a “confession” of heresy.

1332 Rinchinbal Khan, Emperor Ningzong of Yuan becomes the Khagan of the Mongols and Emperor of the Yuan Dynasty, reigning for only 53 days.

1582 Because of the implementation of the Gregorian calendar, this day does not exist in this year in Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain.

1644 A Swedish–Dutch fleet defeats the Danish fleet at Fehmarn and captures about 1,000 prisoners.

1710 Port Royal, the capital of French Acadia, falls in a siege by British forces.

1773 The Whirlpool Galaxy is discovered by Charles Messier.

1775 The United States Continental Congress orders the establishment of the Continental Navy (later renamed the United States Navy).

1792 In Washington, D.C., the cornerstone of the United States Executive Mansion (known as the White House since 1818) is laid.

1812 War of 1812: Battle of Queenston Heights As part of the Niagara campaign in Ontario, Canada, United States forces under General Stephen Van Rensselaer are repulsed from invading Canada by British and native troops led by Sir Isaac Brock.

1843 In New York City, Henry Jones and 11 others found B’nai B’rith (the oldest Jewish service organization in the world).

1845 A majority of voters in the Republic of Texas approve a proposed constitution that, if accepted by the U.S. Congress, will make Texas a U.S. state.

1881 First known conversation in modern Hebrew by Eliezer Ben-Yehuda and friends.

1884 Greenwich, in London, England, is established as Universal Time meridian of longitude.

1885 The Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) is founded in Atlanta, United States.

1892 Edward Emerson Barnard discovers D/1892 T1, the first comet discovered by photographic means, on the night of October 13–14.

1911 Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, becomes the first Governor-General of Canada of royal descent.

1914 In Major League Baseball’s World Series, the Boston Braves defeat the Philadelphia Athletics, 4 games to 0, at Fenway Park in Boston, completing the first World Series sweep in history.

1915 The Battle of the Hohenzollern Redoubt marks the end of the Battle of Loos in northern France, World War I.

1917 The “Miracle of the Sun” is witnessed by an estimated 70,000 people in the Cova da Iria in Fátima, Portugal.

1918 Mehmed Talat Pasha and the Young Turk (C.U.P.) ministry resign and sign an armistice, ending Ottoman participation in World War I.

1921 The Soviet republics of Russia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia sign the Treaty of Kars with the Grand National Assembly of Turkey to establish the contemporary borders between Turkey and the South Caucasus states.

1923 Ankara replaces Istanbul as the capital of Turkey.

1943 The new government of Italy sides with the Allies and declares war on Germany.

1944 Riga, the capital of Latvia is occupied by the Red Army.

1946 France adopts the constitution of the Fourth Republic.

1958 Paddington Bear, a classic character from English children’s literature, makes his debut.

1962 The Pacific Northwest experiences a cyclone the equal of a Cat 3 hurricane. Winds measured above 150 mph at several locations; 46 people died.

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Crazy Historical Anniversaries for October 6th!!

105 BC The Cimbri inflict the heaviest defeat on the Roman army of Gnaeus Mallius Maximus.

69 BC Forces of the Roman Republic led by Lucullus defeat the army of the Kingdom of Armenia led by King Tigranes the Great.

23 Rebels kill and decapitate the Xin Dynasty emperor Wang Mang two days after the capital Chang’an is sacked during a peasant rebellion.

404 Byzantine Empress Eudoxia has her seventh and last pregnancy which ends in a miscarriage. She is left bleeding and dies of an infection shortly after.

1539 Spanish conquistador Hernando de Soto and his army enter the Apalachee capital of Anhaica (present-day Tallahassee, Florida) by force.

1582 Because of the implementation of the Gregorian calendar, this day is skipped in Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain.

1600 Jacopo Peri’s Euridice, the earliest surviving opera, receives its première performance in Florence, signifying the beginning of the Baroque Period

1683 German immigrant families found Germantown in the colony of Pennsylvania, marking the first major immigration of German people to America.

1723 Benjamin Franklin arrives in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, at the age of 17.

1762 Seven Years’ War: conclusion of the Battle of Manila between Britain and Spain, which resulted in the British occupation of Manila for the rest of the war.

1777 General Sir Henry Clinton leads British forces in the capture of Continental Army Hudson River defenses in the Battle of Forts Clinton and Montgomery.

1789 Louis XVI returns to Paris from Versailles after being confronted by the Parisian women on 5 October

1849 The execution of the 13 Martyrs of Arad after the Hungarian war of independence.

1854 England: The Great fire of Newcastle and Gateshead starts shortly after midnight, leading to 53 deaths and hundreds injured.

1876 The American Library Association was founded.

1884 The Naval War College of the United States Navy is founded in Newport, Rhode Island.

1889 American inventor Thomas Edison shows his first motion picture.

1903 The High Court of Australia sits for the first time.

1908 Austria-Hungary annexes Bosnia-Herzegovina, sparking a crisis.

1910 Eleftherios Venizelos is elected Prime Minister of Greece for the first time (seven times in total).

1923 The great powers of World War I withdraw from Istanbul.

1927 Opening of The Jazz Singer, the first prominent talking movie.

1939 Germany’s invasion of Poland ends with the surrender of Polesia army after the Battle of Kock

1942  The October Matanikau action on Guadalcanal begins as United States Marine Corps forces attack Imperial Japanese Army units along the Matanikau River.

1945  Billy Sianis and his pet billy goat are ejected from Wrigley Field during Game 4 of the 1945 World Series.

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What Happened today on October 3rd in History?

52 BC Vercingetorix, leader of the Gauls, surrenders to the Romans under Julius Caesar, ending the siege and Battle of Alesia.

42 BC First Battle of Philippi: Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fight a decisive battle with Caesar’s assassins Brutus and Cassius.

382 Roman Emperor Theodosius I concludes a peace treaty with the Goths and settles them in the Balkans in exchange for military service.

1283 Dafydd ap Gruffydd, prince of Gwynedd in Wales, is the first nobleman to be executed by hanging, drawing and quartering.

1574 The Siege of Leiden is lifted by the Watergeuzen.

1683 The Qing dynasty naval commander Shi Lang reaches Taiwan (under the Kingdom of Tungning) to receive the formal surrender of Zheng Keshuang and Liu Guoxuan after the Battle of Penghu.

1712 The Duke of Montrose issues a warrant for the arrest of Rob Roy MacGregor.

1739 The Treaty of Niš is signed by the Ottoman Empire and Russia at the end of the Russian–Turkish War, 1736–39.

1778 Captain James Cook anchors in Alaska.

1789 George Washington makes the first Thanksgiving Day designated by the national government of the United States of America.

1835 The Staedtler company is founded in Nuremberg, Germany.

1849 American author Edgar Allan Poe is found delirious in a gutter in Baltimore under mysterious circumstances; it is the last time he is seen in public before his death.

1863 The last Thursday in November is declared as Thanksgiving Day by United States President Abraham Lincoln as are Thursdays, November 30, 1865 and November 29, 1866.

1872 The Bloomingdale brothers open their first store at 938 Third Avenue, New York City.

1873 Captain Jack and companions are hanged for their part in the Modoc War.
1912 U.S. forces defeat Nicaraguan rebels under the command of Benjamín Zeledón at the Battle of Coyotepe Hill.

1918 King Boris III of Bulgaria accedes to the throne.

1919 Cincinnati Reds pitcher Adolfo Luque becomes the first Latin player to appear in a World Series.

1929 The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes is renamed to Kingdom of Yugoslavia, “Land of the South Slavs”.

1932 Iraq gains independence from the United Kingdom.

1935 Second Italo-Abyssinian War: Italy invades Ethiopia under General de Bono.

1942 Spaceflight: The first successful launch of a V-2 /A4-rocket from Test Stand VII at Peenemünde, Germany. It is the first man-made object to reach space.

1949 WERD, the first black-owned radio station in the United States, opens in Atlanta.
1950 Korean War: The First Battle of Maryang San, primarily pitting Australian and British forces against communist China, begins.

1952 The United Kingdom successfully tests a nuclear weapon to become the world’s third nuclear power.

1955 The Mickey Mouse Club debuts on ABC.

1957 The California State Superior Court rules that Allen Ginsberg’s Howl and Other Poems is not obscene.

1961 The Dick Van Dyke Show premieres on CBS-TV in the United States.

1962 Project Mercury: Sigma 7 is launched from Cape Canaveral, with astronaut Wally Schirra aboard, for a six-orbit, nine-hour flight.

1963 A violent coup in Honduras pre-empts the October 13 election, ends a period of reform, and begins two decades of military rule.

1964 First buffalo wings are made at the Anchor Bar in Buffalo, New York.

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What Happened in History on October 2nd?

829 Theophilos (813–842), succeeds his father as Byzantine Emperor.

1187 Siege of Jerusalem: Saladin captures Jerusalem after 88 years of Crusader rule.

1263 The battle of Largs is fought between Norwegians and Scots.

1470 A rebellion organized by Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick forces King Edward IV of England to flee to the Netherlands, restoring Henry VI to the throne.

1535 Jacques Cartier discovers the area where Montreal is now located.

1552 Conquest of Kazan by Ivan the Terrible.

1780 John André, British Army officer of the American Revolutionary War, is hanged as a spy by American forces.

1789 George Washington sends proposed Constitutional amendments (The United States Bill of Rights) to the States for ratification.

1814 Spanish Royalists troops under Mariano Osorio defeats rebel Chilean forces of Bernardo O’Higgins and José Miguel Carrera.

1835 The Texas Revolution begins with the Battle of Gonzales: Mexican soldiers attempt to disarm the people of Gonzales, Texas, but encounter stiff resistance from a hastily assembled militia.

1864 American Civil War: Battle of Saltville Union forces attack Saltville, Virginia, but are defeated by Confederate troops.

1889 In Colorado, Nicholas Creede strikes it rich in silver during the last great silver boom of the American Old West.

1919 U.S. President Woodrow Wilson suffers a massive stroke, leaving him partially paralyzed.

1925 John Logie Baird performs the first test of a working television system.

1928 The “Prelature of the Holy Cross and the Work of God”, commonly known as Opus Dei, is founded by Saint Josemaría Escrivá.

1937 Dominican Republic strongman Rafael Trujillo orders the execution of the Haitian population living within the borderlands; approximately 20,000 are killed over the next five days.

1941  In Operation Typhoon, Germany begins an all-out offensive against Moscow.

1942 Ocean Liner RMS Queen Mary accidentally rams and sinks her own escort ship, HMS Curacoa, off the coast of Ireland.

1944 World War II: German troops end the Warsaw Uprising.

1950 Peanuts by Charles M. Schulz is first published.

1958 Guinea declares its independence from France.

1959 The anthology series The Twilight Zone premieres on CBS television.

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