1202 Despite letters from Pope Innocent III forbidding it and threatening excommunication, Catholic crusaders begin a siege of the Catholic city of Zara (now Zadar, Croatia).
1444 The crusading forces of King Vladislaus III of Varna (aka Ulaszlo I of Hungary and Wladyslaw III of Poland) are crushed by the Turks under Sultan Murad II and Vladislaus is killed.
1520 Danish King Christian II executes dozens of people in the Stockholm Bloodbath after a successful invasion of Sweden.
1580 After a three-day siege, the English Army beheads over 600 Papal soldiers and civilians at Dún an Óir, Ireland.
1619 René Descartes has the dreams that inspire his Meditations on First Philosophy.
1674 As provided in the Treaty of Westminster, Netherlands cedes New Netherland to England.
1702 English colonists under the command of James Moore besiege Spanish St. Augustine during Queen Anne’s War.
1766 The last colonial governor of New Jersey, William Franklin, signs the charter of Queen’s College (later renamed Rutgers University).
1775 The United States Marine Corps is founded at Tun Tavern in Philadelphia by Samuel Nicholas.
1793 A Goddess of Reason is proclaimed by the French Convention at the suggestion of Pierre Gaspard Chaumette.
1821 Cry of Independence by Rufina Alfaro at La Villa de Los Santos, Panama setting into motion a revolt which lead to Panama’s independence from Spain and to it immediately becoming part of Colombia
1847 The passenger ship Stephen Whitney is wrecked in thick fog off the southern coast of Ireland, killing 92 of the 110 on board. The disaster results in the construction of the Fastnet Rock lighthouse.
1871 Henry Morton Stanley locates missing explorer and missionary, Dr. David Livingstone in Ujiji, near Lake Tanganyika, famously greeting him with the words, “Dr. Livingstone, I presume?”.
1898 Beginning of the Wilmington Insurrection of 1898, the only instance of a municipal government being overthrown in US history.
1910 The date of Thomas A. Davis’ opening of the San Diego Army and Navy Academy, though the official founding date is November 23, 1910.
1918 The Western Union Cable Office in North Sydney, Nova Scotia, receives a top-secret coded message from Europe (that would be sent to Ottawa and Washington, D.C.) that said on November 11, 1918, all fighting would cease on land, sea and in the air.
1919 The first national convention of the American Legion is held in Minneapolis, ending on November 12.
1940 The 1940 Vrancea earthquake strikes Romania killing an estimated 1,000 and injuring approximately 4,000 more.
1942 Germany invades Vichy France following French Admiral François Darlan’s agreement to an armistice with the Allies in North Africa.
1944 The ammunition ship USS Mount Hood explodes at Seeadler Harbour, Manus, Admiralty Islands, killing at least 432 and wounding 371.
1945 Heavy fighting in Surabaya between Indonesian nationalists and returning colonialists after World War II, today celebrated as Heroes’ Day (Hari Pahlawan).
1951 With the roll out of the North American Numbering Plan, direct-dial coast-to-coast telephone service begins in the United States.
1958 The Hope Diamond is donated to the Smithsonian Institution by New York diamond merchant Harry Winston.