October 23rd . . .
42 BC At the Second Battle of Philippi Mark Antony and Octavian decisively defeat Brutus’s army. Brutus commits suicide.
425 Valentinian III is elevated as Roman emperor at the age of 6.
501 The Synodus Palmaris, called by Gothic king Theoderic the Great, discharges Pope Symmachus of all charges, thus ending the schism of Antipope Laurentius.
1086 At the Battle of az-Zallaqah, the army of Yusuf ibn Tashfin defeats the forces of Castilian King Alfonso VI.
1157 The Battle of Grathe Heath ends the civil war in Denmark. King Sweyn III is killed and Valdemar I restores the country.
1295 The first treaty forming the Auld Alliance between Scotland and France against England is signed in Paris.
1641 Outbreak of the Irish Rebellion of 1641.
1642 First major battle of the First English Civil War.
1694 British/American colonial forces, led by Sir William Phips, fail to seize Quebec from the French.
1707 The first Parliament of Great Britain meets.
1739 British Prime Minister Robert Walpole, reluctantly declares war on Spain.
1812 Claude François de Malet, a French general, begins a conspiracy to overthrow Napoleon Bonaparte, claiming that the Emperor died in Russia and that he is now the commandant of Paris.
1850 The first National Women’s Rights Convention begins in Worcester, Massachusetts, United States.
1861 U.S. President Abraham Lincoln suspends the writ of habeas corpus in Washington, D.C., for all military-related cases.
1864 American Civil War: Battle of Westport Union forces under General Samuel R. Curtis defeat Confederate troops led by General Sterling Price at Westport, near Kansas City.
1867 72 Senators are summoned by Royal Proclamation to serve as the first members of the Canadian Senate.
1870 Franco-Prussian War: the Siege of Metz concludes with a decisive Prussian victory.
1906 Alberto Santos-Dumont flies an airplane in the first heavier-than-air flight in Europe at Champs de Bagatelle, Paris, France.
1911 First use of aircraft in war: An Italian pilot takes off from Libya to observe Turkish army lines during the Italo-Turkish War.
1912 The Battle of Kumanovo between the Serbian and Ottoman armies begins.
1915 In New York City, 25,000-33,000 women march on Fifth Avenue to advocate their right to vote.
1917 Lenin calls for the October Revolution.
1929 Great Depression: After a steady decline in stock market prices since a peak in September, the New York Stock Exchange begins to show signs of panic.
1935 Dutch Schultz, Abe Landau, Otto Berman, and Bernard “Lulu” Rosencrantz are fatally shot at a saloon in Newark, New Jersey in what will become known as The Chophouse Massacre.
1939 The Japanese Mitsubishi G4M twin-engine “Betty” Bomber makes its maiden flight.
1941 Field Marshal Georgy Zhukov takes command of Red Army operations to prevent the further advance into Russia of German forces and to prevent the Wehrmacht from capturing Moscow.
1942 Second Battle of El Alamein: At El Alamein in northern Egypt, the British Eighth Army under Field Marshal Montgomery begins a critical offensive to expel the Axis armies from Egypt.
1942 The Battle for Henderson Field begins during the Guadalcanal Campaign and ends on October 26.
1944 World War II: Battle of Leyte Gulf The largest naval battle in history begins in the Philippines.
1946 The United Nations General Assembly convenes for the first time, at an auditorium in Flushing, Queens, New York City.
1955 Prime Minister Ngô Đình Diệm defeats former emperor Bảo Đại in a referendum and founds the Republic of Vietnam.
1956 Thousands of Hungarians protest against the government and Soviet occupation. (The Hungarian Revolution is crushed on November 4).
1958 The Springhill Mine bump An underground earthquake traps 174 miners in the No. 2 colliery at Springhill, Nova Scotia, the deepest coal mine in North America at the time. By November 1, rescuers from around the world had dug out 100 of the victims, marking the death toll at 74.
1958 The Smurfs, a fictional race of blue dwarves, later popularized in a Hanna-Barbera animated cartoon series, appear for the first time in the story La flute à six schtroumpfs, a Johan and Peewit adventure by Peyo, which is serialized in the weekly Spirou magazine.